Local Jhang Sadr Punjab news, پاکستان
This is a agricultural manner in which the plant tissues are connected so as to continue their rise collectively. The upward part of the joined plant is known as scion and on the other hand downward part is known as root stock. The progression of this combination demands that the vascular tissues should grow collectively and this type of joining is known as inosculation. This method is extensively used in asexual propagation of plants grown on large scale for horticultural and agricultural dealings. In almost all cases a plant is selected for roots called stock or root stock. And then for stems, leaves, flowers, or fruits another plant is selected known as scion. The scion plant possesses desired genes to be cloned in future yielding by means of stock-scion plant. The vascular cambium of stock and scion should be set in association with each other for fruitful grafting. Studies have shown that attachment of phloem sets up after 3 days and in case of xylem it established after 7 days of pioneer grafting. Grafting joints are not much stronger than the natural ones because only the new formed tissues will fuse with each other not the older ones.
FACTORS FOR SUCCESSFUL GRAFTING
- Compatibility for stock and scion:
As grafting happen when the vascular tissues of stock and scion connects. The plants like monocots can’t be grafted because they are deficient in vascular bundles. It is a common perceptive that more the two plants resemble with each other genetically the more the grafting will be successful. The chance of success for grafting of plants from same species is greater than the plants from different species. Sometimes the plants of same genus also show successful grafting.
- Cambium alignment and pressure:
For successful grafting you should apply firm pressure on the joint where vascular cambium of stock and scion connects so that the tissue connects with each other quickly and the orientation of the joint should be in the line of normal growth. This will enhance the swift movement of water and nutrients from root stock to scion.
- Completed during appropriate stage of plant:
The time when stock and scion of plant are able to yield callus the grafting will be completed. Temperature also effects grafting and high temperature can cease callus formation.
- Proper care of graft site:
When the grafting is done it is necessary to take good care of plant till the plant restores its health. You can use different grafting tapes and waxes to save plant from excessive water loss at the joint of stock and scion. If the plant structure is weak you should provide support to the plant by twine or string.
- Cutting tools:
You have to make sure that the cutting tools are pointed and sharp so that they will give less damage to the tissues of plant; to prevent the transmission of disease it is necessary to keep the tools clean. Cutting knife for usual grafting should have blade of 3 inches and handle of 4 inches. The knives used especially for grafting are bud-grafting knives, surgical knives, and pruning knives. If the size of stock is too large cleavers, chisels, and saws can be used to cut.
- Disinfecting tools:
Using tools treated with disinfectants will make sure that the grafting place is free from pathogens. Absolute alcohol is a standard sterilizing agent.
- Graft seals:
These seals make the grafting spot hydrated. These should be tight enough to stop excessive water loss and loose enough to assist plant growth. Specialized types of clay, wax, petroleum jelly and adhesive tapes are used as graft seals.
- Tying and support materials:
If the structure of plant is weak then it is necessary to provide support to the plant to keep scion and stock in the place. Strips, twine, nails and splints are the support materials for grafting.
- Grafting machines:
Grafting machines are available to reduce the time consumed because doing it by hand consumes a lot of time and skill. There are machines which have ability to graft 800 seedlings per hour.
This method is utilized to connect plants together that are tough to graft. In this method plants are grown near to each other and both have root stocks and then joined and grow collectively from that point of joining. Each scion and stock has its own parents. This grafting will complete at any time of year.
Bud grafting is also known as chip budding in which a bud is used in place of twig. The most usual example of budding is rose grafting. First cut off the shoot of the stock plant then a bud is taken from the host plant; the ground surface of bud is placed under the bark of the stem of stock plant. On stock plant any bud except grafted bud which starts emerging is cut off.
In this method first of all give a small cut in the stock with the help of a sharp knife and then put sharp end of scion into the stock. The best season for this type of grafting is early spring. This method is best for scion of 1cm on a stock of large diameter. First give a clean from to the downward on the stock or branch to make a cleft of 3cm. The scion should have long deep edge. Now put the scion into the cleft and push it down to the end. Now tape the scion from the upper end of the stock to keep the scion in spot and now overspread grafting wax. It helps to prevent excessive water loss.
In whip grafting a slanting cut is given to the stock and scion and then connected. Then the grafted end is sealed with a soft sealant to reduce water loss and attack of germs. The most usual variation is a whip and a tongue and graft it is a tough variation but the chances of success is very high as the cambium connection between scion and stock is very good. This grafting method is used in fruit trees grown on large scale. This method is commonly utilized with stock of diameter 1cm and the diameter of scion should be nearly equal to stock.
In this method less stock is required as compared to cleft grafting and it will possess shape of a tree. Commonly 6-8 buds of scion are used in this technique. A cut is given on the branch of length 1cm and then the scion is inserted into the branch. Scion must have an angle of 35 degree to the stock. And then it should be covered with grafting materials.
It is also known as banana graft and is usually utilized for pecans. It is declared for most cambium covering but this technique is tough. In this the diameters of the stock and scion should be of same size. Skin of the stock is striped into four flaps and the hardwood is eliminated this will look like a striped banana. This technique is very tough to learn.
Awl grafting consumes minimum time and resources as compared to other grafting techniques. This method is discovered accidently by an experienced grafter. In this method grafting is done by utilizing a screwdriver to give a cut in the bark not to cut the cambium layer. Then the scion is inserted into the stock.
Veneer grafting is also known as inlay grafting, this technique is utilized for stock having diameter greater than 3cm and the thickness of scion should be as pencil. A cleavage is made on the stock to same size of scion then it is inserted into the cleft and covered with tape.
In this method a small sized scion is grafted on a thick stock. On the thick stock 4cm parallel deep cut is given to the stock and then the bark is removed from the wood. The scion is of wedge shape, cambium showing off on both side is inserted into the backside of stock, with flat face towards the wood.
CULTIVATED PLANTS PROPAGTED BY GRAFTING:
• Apple – grafting
• Avocado – grafting
• Citrus (lemon, orange, grapefruit, Tangerine, dayap) – grafting
• Grapes – stem cuttings, grafting, aerial layering
• Mango – ¬grafting
• Nut crops (walnut, pecan) – grafting
• Peach – grafting
• Pear – grafting
• Rubber Plant - bud grafting
Naeem ul Hassan & Dr. Muhammad yaseen
Department of Agriculture Extension,
College of Agriculture, UOS, Sargodha
Latest news Jhang Sadr - here are the news of nearby cities
Neglected parasitic disease during pregnancy:
Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by protozoal parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It is a zoonotic disease. Common house hold cat are the major cause to spread the disease in pregnant women. While infection can be spread through contaminated water or food, undercooked meat, mother to fetus, organ and blood transplant (rare).
In healthy persons very mild symptoms were caused by Toxoplasmosis normally, but as far pregnant women it will cause serious damages to fetus leading to abortion. A cat can’t transmit disease as a pet but the infection comes from coming into contact with the infected faeces of a cat. If a woman before few weeks when she get pregnant or first time infected during her first pregnancy with toxoplasmosis is only a risk to an unborn baby. Congenital toxoplasmosis is the disease which transmits from mother to her unborn baby. If you catch toxoplasmosis for the first time during pregnancy, it does not mean that your baby will be infected. On average, only 4 in 10 of such infections will pass to the baby. Caught during pregnancy, toxoplasmosis can cause miscarriage, stillbirth or damage to the baby’s brain and other organs, particularly the eyes. However, most babies born with toxoplasmosis have no obvious damage at birth but develop symptoms, usually eye damage, during childhood or even adulthood. A few will have more serious symptoms such as blindness or brain damage.
Many factors in our daily routine are can play major roles to spread this contagious disease toxoplasmosis.
These factors could be:
• raw or undercooked meat (meat showing any traces of pink or blood), and raw cured meat
• unwashed vegetables and fruit
• cat faeces or soil contaminated with cat faeces
• unpasteurised goats’ milk and dairy products made from it.
The infection can also be passed:
• Through the placenta if the mother becomes infected infection (mother to unborn baby).
• Through infected matter entering human body fluids; if, for example, during the process of lambing, material splashes into eyes or open cuts.
• Through transplanted organs or blood products from other humans that are infected toxoplasmosis
• Through inhaling the parasite eggs (possible but very unusual).
Person-to-person infection is not possible, except from mother to unborn child. Anyone who eats anything infected with the parasite. Pregnant women who work on the land, in catering or farming may be at higher risk as they may be more likely to come into contact with the parasite. Lambing is a particular risk for pregnant women.
Tips to avoid toxoplasmosis during pregnancy
Only eat meat that has been thoroughly cooked (ie, with no trace of blood or pinkness).
• Avoid raw meat and cured meat, such as Parma ham.
• Wash hands, chopping boards and utensils thoroughly after preparing raw meat.
• Wash all fruit and vegetables thoroughly before cooking/eating to remove all traces of soil.
• Avoid unpasteurised goats’ milk and dairy products made from it.
• Wear gloves when gardening and wash hands and gloves afterwards – if you eat while gardening wash your hands first, and try to avoid gardening in areas that may have been soiled with cat faeces.
• Cover children’s sandpits to prevent cats using them as litter boxes.
• Remove faeces from cat litter tray every day wearing rubber gloves (or ask someone else do this), scald trays regularly with boiling water.
• If you are handling litter trays, wash gloves and hands thoroughly afterwards.
• Do not handle lambing ewes and do not bring lambs into the house
Blood tests for toxoplasmosis can be done at any stage before or during pregnancy. The blood test can usually only show possible infection two to three weeks after any risk incident, as it can take this long for antibodies to be detectable. The blood test involves taking a small amount of blood from the mother. There is no risk to the unborn baby. The blood test aims to show whether certain antibodies indicating toxoplasmosis are present or not, and, if they are present, to find out when the infection happened. If the tests show that there is a recent or current infection, there is a risk that the baby will be infected. But in case of negative blood result Doctor can go with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) result for further confirmation of results. As molecular test are DNA based and their report ones can’t be challenged. The obstetrician or GP will make a recommendation about any further action that might be required. It may take several weeks for the infection to pass from you to your baby. The degree of risk and severity of damage depends on when you were infected. All babies born to women with confirmed toxoplasmosis in pregnancy will be monitored closely by pediatricians and receive blood tests during their first year. Breastfeeding is safe if you have toxoplasmosis, the disease cannot be transmitted this way. You are also passing on extra antibodies to your baby, making their immune system stronger. Breastfeeding is therefore recommended, unless you are being treated with pyrimethamine. This medication should be changed before breastfeeding.
Unfortunately parasitic diseases are neglected in pregnant women in Pakistan. Presence of various abortion causes parasitic disease is serious problems for mother and fetal health also. Parasitic diseases can be considered seriously during pregnancy. Only few studies were found on toxoplasmosis from Pakistan. Therefore it is a suggestion to do more research on this parasite in Pakistan to highlight the damages of this disease and to reduce the possible damages from this disease.
Natural Pollution Environmental contamination is expanding with each passing year and dispensing grave and hopeless harm to the world. Natural contamination is of distinctive sorts to be specific discuss, water, soil, clamor and light-weight. These cause harm to the living framework. How contamination interatomic with open wellbeing, natural pharmaceutical and the environment has experienced emotional alter. Later oil spills within the Yellowstone Waterway, Gold country tundra and Enbridge (Wisconsin) illustrate how contamination can specifically and by implication affect man’s wellbeing natural contamination was not a medical/public wellbeing issue nor was it talked about in clinical settings. Since the 1950s, natural pharmaceutical has been examined more regularly through a more prominent mindfulness in open wellbeing and preventive medicine; in spite of the fact that nowadays, there's presently a center. Natural and word related medication are be that as it may more commonly seen as an coordinates subject, with accentuation given to mechanical issues. Certainly, contamination issues have been recognized within the far off past but were more effortlessly relieved by nature due to the constrained complexity of the toxin, its degradability (e.g. biodegradable organics) and lower industrialization. Health-related impacts from natural contamination have been well known, but were not completely realized until highly notable occasions just like the Donora (Pennsylvania) brown haze event in 1948 coming about in afterward open wellbeing programs counting in their preparing a discourse of natural medication. There has been an expanded mindfulness of how contamination is watched with respect to its wellbeing affect and demeanors toward open wellbeing and natural medication. Harm from oil spills will not as it were impact open wellbeing but generally illness rates for a long time to come. As natural contamination increments so will the significance of natural medication in overseeing its results.
In the neighborhood of Islamabad, guy cut off his wife's nose together with his brother and cousin after she refused to make him tea.
Police said the incident took place in Saddar village in the district of Mian Chunnu, 97/15 L. The victim, Parveen Bibi, told police that her father, Dameera, and his friend, Ameera, and cousin Mushtaq, brutally tortured her, causing her feet, legs, and other parts of the body to be injured.
"I work as a domestic helper in people's homes to feed my kids because my husband is not helping me. In the past, I was subjected to domestic violence, but this time, since I refused to make tea for him and his friend, he brutally beat me."
According to a recent survey, in Pakistan, 70% to 90% of women face domestic violence issues. Mentally, physically, and even murdered, they are tortured.
Although Pakistan's women's rights laws exist, they are seldom implemented. Therefore, with each passing day, the number of such incidents increases.
Budget of Federal and Provincial Government 2020-21
- Size of Budget
- IMF Policy
- Comparison of Educational Budget (2k19-2k20)
The total outlay of budget 2k20-21 is Rs.7, 294.9 billion. This size is 11
percent lower than the size of budget estimates 2k19-20.
The provincial share in federal taxes is estimated at Rs.2, 873.7 billion
during. 2k20-21, which is 11.7 percent lower than the budget estimates
Without deep structural reform, which includes reducing the size of
government and curtailing the expenses on the overbearing and overfed holy cow the military of Pakistan 'll not be able to get its finances under
- "Pakistan's economy is an unrealistic estimate"
For some years now, Pakistan’s economy has been in the throes of a slow meltdown. Like the previous two budgets, the third budget presented by
the. (PTI Government) on 12 June was supposed to be make or break, & quite like the preceding budgets, the current budget too ‘ll neither completely break nor make Pakistan, instead, Pakistan’s economy 'll remain in what is best described as suspended animation, with no clear direction, & tottering from one financial crisis to another, constantly in search of one bailout after another....
Many Pakistani analysts have pointed out that this budget has been made
with an eye on the IMF and not so much to kickstart the economy in
Pakistan. Pakistan desperately needs to remain in the Enhanced Fund
Facility (EFF) programme of the IMF, without which it’ll lose the support of
other multilateral financial institutions like World_Bank this propaganda
needs to be exposed.
(Education) As education is a provincial matter so federal budget has a
lesser chunk for it. Meanwhile last year budget allocations for education
Punjab: 383 Bn
Sindh: 239 Bn
KPK: 143 Bn
BA: 60 Bn
HEC: 45 Bn
Federal: 77 Bn
Total: 947 Bn
Defense: 1152 Bn
This is summarized data wise of Pakistan's budget. What you see in the
picture below is a breakdown of net Revenue vs. Expenditure. 1/2
- If you feel sick, buy guns and shoot yourself because you are uneducated
Author: Rtr.Abrar Ahmed Sheikh
RID:3271 (Elect.VP-RACK Innovt)
Student of UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI
اگر بادشاہت کا مطلب جبڑے کی طاقت ہے تو Jaguar جنگل کا اصلی بادشاہ ہے۔ یہ براعظم جنوبی امریکہ اورشمالی امریکہ کے چند ممالک میں پایا جاتا ہے۔ جنگلی بلیوں کے خاندان کو سائینسی زبان میں Filadae کہتے ہیں اور اسی خاندان میں جاگوار بھی شامل ہے۔ خوش قسمتی سے Filadae خاندان کی دو بلیاں تیندوا اور برفانی تیندوا پاکستان میں بھی موجود ہیں۔ خیر جاگوار صرف براعظم شمالی و جنوبی امریکہ کا رہائیشی ہے۔
یہ جنوبی امریکہ کے شمال کی طرف واقع ممالک مثلاً برازیل، ارجنٹائن ، پیراگوئے سے لے کر میکسیکو اور ملک امریکہ کے جنوبی چند مخصوص علاقوں میں پائے جاتے ہیں۔ ان کی رہائیش خاص قسم کے پانی والے جنگلات ہیں۔ چونکہ براعظم جنوبی امریکہ ایک ٹراپیکل خطہ ہے جہاں سارا سال ڈھیر بارش موسم گرم مرطوب ہوتا ہے اس لئیے وہاں دریا بھی بہت سارے موجود ہیں اور زیادہ تر یہ دریا امازون دریا میں جا لگتے ہیں۔ امازون اس براعظم کا سب سے بڑا دریا ہے اور کافی زیادہ پانی ہونے کی وجہ سے اسکے اردگرد کافی گیلے گھنے جنگلات (Swamps) ہیں۔ اب اس پانی اور جنگلات میں مختلف قسم کے جانور ہیں جو پانی اور جنگل دونوں کو زندہ رکھے ہیں ۔ان میں بندر بھی ہیں، مگرمچھ بھی ہیں اوٹرز بھی ہیں، Ant aeaters بھی ہیں اور دنیا کا سب سے بڑا چوہا Capybara بھی یہیں انہی پانیوں میں موجود ہے۔ دنیا کے سب سے بڑے چوہے کے لئیے سب سے بڑی طاقت والی ہی بلی چاہئیے تھی اور وہ بلی ہے جاگوار۔
جاگوار اور تیندوے کی جسامت انتہائی ملتی جلتی ہے اور لوگ اکثر دونوں میں فرق نہیں کر پاتے۔ لیکن دونوں میں انتہا کا فرق ہے۔
۰ تیندوے کے جسم کے پھول(Rosettes) چھوٹے ہوتے ہیں اور ان میں نقطے نہیں ہوتے جبکہ جاگوار کے جسم کے پھول میں ایک یا زیادہ نقطے ہوتے ہیں اور سائز بھی بڑا ہوتا ہے۔
۰ تیندوے کا وزن جاگوار کی نسبت تقریباً 30% کم ہوتا ہے۔
۰ جاگوار زیادہ تر پانیوں میں شکار پکڑتا ہے جبکہ تیندوا زیادہ تر اپنا شکار لے کر درختوں پر رہتا ہے۔
۰ ان دونوں کا کبھی بھی آمنا سامنا نہیں ہوسکتا کیونکہ تیندوا افریقہ اور ایشیا کے ممالک میں ملتا ہے جبکہ جاگوار شمالی و جنوبی امریکہ میں۔
۰ دونوں کے جبڑے کی طاقت میں بھی بلا کا فرق ہے۔ جاگوار کی طاقت تیندوے سے تقریباً تین گنا زیادہ ہوتی ہے۔ پھر بھئ آسان طریقے سے فرق سمجھنا ہو تو ایک بازو تیندوے کے پنجرے میں اور ایک جاگوار کے پنجرے میں ڈال دیں۔ اگر صرف کھال اتری تو تیندوا ہے اور اگر ہڈی بھی پس گئی تو جاگوار ہے😄.
جاگوار کے جسم کے پھول اور چہرے پہ سیاہ بے شمار دھبے دراصل اسے گھنے درختوں اور جھاڑیوں میں چھپنے (Camoufloge) میں مدد کرتے ہیں۔ حیرت کی بات کہ کالا جاگوار بھی ہوتا ہے اور اس کا بھی کالے تیندوے والا ہی مسئلہ یعنی جلد کی بیماری ہے۔ اس بیماری میں جب جاگوار کا جسم پیلا رنگ (pigment) زیادہ نہیں بنا پاتا اور کالا رنگ پھیل جاتا ہے جس سے کالا جاگوار فطرت میں آتا ہے۔ لیکن ایسا جاگوار بہت کم دیکھنے کو ملتا ہے۔
جاگوار انتہائی زبردست شکاری ہے۔ یہ جنگلی بڑی بلیوں میں سب سے زیادہ پانی میں گھسنے والا اور شکار پکڑنے والا جانور ہے اور جب بھی پانی میں جائے گا، مچھلی، Capybara چوہا یا Caiman مگرمچھ پکڑ کر لائے گا۔ آپ نے ایک ویڈیو بھی دیکھی ہوگی جس میں جاگوار مگرمچھ کو سر سے پکڑ کر باہر لے کر آرہا ہے۔ اس کے جبڑے میں 1500psi کی طاقت ہے جو شیر چیتے ٹائیگر سب سے زیادہ ہے۔ psi کا مطلب ہے پائونڈ پر سکوئیر، مطلب جاگوار کے منہ میں جب کسی شے کی گردن آجاتی ہے تو یہ ایسے ہی ہے جیسے کسی نے اسے اوپر نیچے سے 750 کلو وزن رکھ دیا ہو۔ یہ کوئی اتفاقیہ بات نہیں جناب بلکہ جاگوار جس ماحول میں رہتا ہے اسکے منہ میں ایسا ہی پریشر ہونا چاہئیے تھا۔ یہ مگرمچھ کا شکار کرتا ہے اور کھچوے کا خول بھی دانتوں سے توڑ کر اسے کھاتا ہے اس طرح یہ ان جانوروں کی آبادی کو کنٹرول میں رکھ کر باقی جانوروں کو بھی زندگی فراہم کرتا ہے۔ یہ تیندوے کی طرح درخت پہ تیزی سے چڑھ کر چھلانگیں نہیں لگا سکتا لیکن درختوں پر ضرور چڑھ سکتا ہے اور وہاں سے اکثر دوسرے جانوروں پر چھلانگ لگا کر پکڑ لیتا ہے۔اس کے بارے می مشہور ہے کہ یہ نوجوان گائے کو پانی میں گردن سے پکڑ کر کھینچ کر لے کر جاسکتا ہے۔ برازیل جو دنیا کو سب سے زیادہ گوشت سپلائی کرنے والے ملکوں میں سے ہے۔ اکثر گائے بھینسیں جاگوار کے ہتھے چڑھ جاتی ہیں۔ جاگوار بندروں، پرندوں , اژدہے ، سانپوں کو بھی پکڑ لیتا ہے۔ کیڑے کھانے والی بلا( Ant Eater) کا بھی شکار کر لیتا ہے لیکن وہ اکثر جاگوار کو بھگا دیتا ہے۔ اس سے نہیں قابو آتا تو اوٹر, جو گروہ میں رہتے ہیں اور مل کر اسے بھگا ڈالتے ہیں۔
یہ جنگلی سور اور ٹاپیر جانور کا بھی شکار کرلیتا ہے(دیکھئیے تصاویر)
یہ زیادہ تر رات کا شکاری (nocturnal animal) ہے لیکن بھوک لگے تو کون دن یا رات دیکھے ، دن میں بھی ناشتہ کرلیتا ہے۔
جیسا کہ جنگلی بلیوں کے بارے میں مشہور ہے یہ ایک دن میں کئی سو بار ملاپ کرتے ہیں تاکہ انڈوں کی اچھی فرٹیلائیزیشن ہوسکے۔ جاگوار کے معاملے میں بھی ایسا ہی ہے۔ جاگوار اکیلا رہنے والا جانور ہے ایسے جانوروں کو Solitary جانور کہتے ہیں۔ مادہ سے ملاپ کے بعد یہ اپنا رستہ ناپتا ہے اور مادہ اکیلے ہی بچوں کو پروان چڑھاتی ہے۔ انکے ملاپ کا کوئی خاص موسم نہیں ہوتا جب مادہ تیار ہو تو اپنا جسم مختلف جگئوں پر رگڑ کر یا پیشاب لگا کر نر کو اپنی طرف مائل کرتی ہے۔ جاگوار ایک انتہائی پراسرار قسم کا خاموش سا جانور ہے جسے جنگل میں ڈھونڈنا بھی مشکل ہے۔اس لئیے اس پہ بہت زیادہ تحقیق نہیں ہوسکی۔
جاگوار کالفظ بھی جنوبی امریکہ کی پرانی قبائیلی زبانوں سے نکلا ہے جس کا مطلب ہے خونخوار درندہ۔
جاگوار کا دوسری جنگلی بلیوں سے مقابلہ:
جاگوار چیتے کو سیکنڈوں میں ختم کردے گا، تیندوے کو منٹوں میں، جبکہ شیرنی کو مار سکتا ہے شیر کی گردن پر بال اسے بچاتے ہیں اسلئیے شیر سے مقابلہ سخت ہوگا۔ البتہ ٹائیگ اس سے چار فٹ بڑا ہے اور اسکے پنجے بہت زیادہ مضبوط ہیں۔ چاہے جاگوار کا جبڑا اس سے زیادہ طاقتور ہے لیکن وہ جاگوار سے جیت جائے گا۔ شائد اسی لئیے رب نے انکی مختلف براعظموں میں ڈیوٹی لگائی ہے تاکہ ایک ہی جگہ پر یہ ایک دوسرے کو ختم نہ کر ڈالیں۔
جاگوار کے حملے سے کیسے بچا جائے:
جاگوار سے آج تک انتہائی کم ہلاکتیں ہوئی ہیں کیونکہ یہ ایک بہت پوشیدہ جانور ہے اور خود کو انسانوں سے دور رکھتا ہے۔ لیکن کبھی زندگی میں واسطہ پڑ جائے تو اس سے آنکھیں ملائے بغیر پیچھے چلتے جائیں لیکن اپنی کمر نہ دکھائیں ورنہ یہ گردن پکڑنے آئے گا ۔ یہ واحد جنگلی بلی ہے جو گردن کے علاوہ کھوپڑی توڑ کر شکار کرنے بھی آتا ہے اس لئیے سر اور گردن دونوں بچا کر اس کے ناک اور آنکھوں پر مکے ماریں ممکن ہے بھاگ جائے گا اپنے بازو پھیلا کر خود کو بڑھا کر چیخیں مار کر جی بھر کے گالیاں دیں ۔ کیونکہ گالیوں کے وقت انسانی آواز شدید رعب دار ہوتی ہے۔ اگر یہ سب ہتھکنڈے ناکام ہوجائیں تے فیر لالہ جی، جی آیاں نوں۔ 😃
جاگوار کو مایا تہذیب (Apaclypto والی) میں بطور طاقت کا دیوتا تصور کیا جاتا رہا ہے۔ اسکی خوبصورت کھال کو شکاری محض چند ڈالروں تک بیچتے رہے ہیں جس سے اسکی نسل خطرے کی جانب سفر شروع کرچکی ہے۔ اسکی اوسط عمر 15 سال ہوتی ہے، جاگوار شمالی و جنوبی امریکہ میں بیشک سب سے طاقتور بلی ہے۔
اس کے ساتھ بڑی بلیوں کے مضمون ختم اور اب سے چھوٹی جنگلی بلیوں کے مضامین شروع ہونگے۔ پہلے والی بلیوں کے متعلق پڑھئیے:
تحریر: Azeem Latif
Gender mainstreaming in agriculture extension
Authors: Imran Burhan
Proposed by; Dr. Muhammad Yaseen
Department of agriculture extension, College of agriculture,uos, Sargodha
Pakistan economy relay on agriculture. A significant piece of the GDP involves that salary which is produced by the agribusiness and agro-base exercises. Ladies are spine of the family unit economy and assume an extremely noteworthy job in agro-base exercises in rustic territories. This investigation comprise of practically half of the populace for example ladies interest in farming. Pakistan and India are the two different nations as the two different economies are comparative in financial societies. This paper likewise covers the reasons of change in ladies work in horticulture and measures which concerned specialists ought to receive so as to increments support as well as profitability of female work.Ladies have consistently assumed a significant job in farming, undertaking a wide scope of exercises identifying with food creation, handling and promoting. Past the homestead, ladies assume a key job in land and water the executives in every creating nation. Ladies are frequently the authorities of water, kindling and grain.
GENDER mainstreaming a way to deal with approach making that considers the two ladies' and men's inclinations and concerns. The idea of sexual orientation mainstreaming was first presented at the 1985 Nairobi World Conference on Women.Sexual orientation mainstreaming is a worldwide issue, contacting the delicate cerebrums of scholars, specialists and researchers of 21st century. Though the job of ladies in all circles of life isn't equivalent with the sources gave to them by the states and the social orders also. Despite the fact that ladies investment in farming division is noteworthy however consequently they are denied of their fundamental training and have least access to data sources; like tv،, newspaper, radio and different sources. Right now study was led to look at the deterrents to sex mainstreaming in the rural augmentation. For the current investigation 500 number of families were chosen as study test. The information were gathered with the assistance of pre-tried and approved meeting plan. Discoveries indicated least degree of training particularly for spouses. In addition, these ladies were having immaterial use of data sources. The investigation unequivocally suggests advancement of instruction and data hotspots for ranch families. The finding of research study featured the prompt consideration of Government, arrangement producers and social orders to have a look over such lacks.
The manual is planned for use in preparing field augmentation operators and provincial advancement laborers working at the town level and it accept a general information on fundamental expansion standards and strategies.The general target of this instructional booklet is to help field expansion laborers in working all the more viably with ladies ranchers. Specifically, the manual plans to give preparing materials and data that could upgrade field laborers abilities to:
• recognize needs, needs, imperatives and openings notice by country ladies;
• guarantee that augmentation bundles meet explicit sex necessities;
• contact and discuss successfully with rustic ladies.
Land Ownership: Despite an expanding obligation regarding food and other cash crops, women do not have a secure entitlement to landandasset ownership. Men dominate this space. Without a male head of family unit, old ladies may accept this accountability. Once in a while this occurs by decision or unavoidable conditions, for example, the passing of husband, divorce, out-migration of men, etc. General society and private associations have never put forth a cognizant attempt to bring mindfulness among men and women regarding their rights ownership rights. A survey conducted by AKRSP indicates that 31 percent of the households have women holding assets and these include landhouse, shops, ornaments, gold, jewellery, fruit trees, forest trees and livestock.
infrastructure/technology: Major agricultural infrastructure including water channels and roads either dont exist or is in a poor condition. The storerooms are not accessible. Network constructed and oversaw water system channels are for the most part inclined to fiascos, for example, avalanches and frequent channel breakage.
poor inputs: This causes the families to depend on customary seed assortments, low milk production breeds, and local poultry breeds. They are both the general population and private parts they have not had the option to address these issues. There is a significant issue in the flexibly of improved excellent oat, vegetable seeds and seed potato. Without guaranteed flexibly of improved seed there is minimal possibility of improving yields.
Lack of decision making:As indicated by AKRSP, in 23 percent families, ladies settle on free choices in regards to cultivate costs while in 57 percent families, ladies don't have any dynamic force. It is additionally fascinating to realize that ladies with instruction, aptitudes and specialized preparing are bound to take an interest in choice making. than women exceptance of these characteristics .Ladies working in horticulture are less inclined to choose about the deal or acquisition of advantages.
strict limitations: Women's entrance to cultivate assets relies on the strict and socio-social frameworks winning in their general vicinity of living arrangement. In a few traditionalist regions, for example, Diamer and Astore, ladies are carefully precluded from managing outsiders. Women are not allowed to work out side . During these times they remain at the house. Maybe perhaps the best obstruction in ladies' support in ranch asset the executives is their absence of versatility
Showcasing Constraint's: Women make a solid effort to amplify creation from subsistence cultivating. Because of poor promoting offices, the vast majority of the ladies who are associated with horticulture related endeavors (vegetables, natural products, nursery, poultry and so on.) are confronting extraordinary with promoting, one of which is the absence of foundation. Without great items. Pay acquiring openings are additionally not accessible for ladies.
Womens work is not recognize:: Women's unpaid work isn't perceived at family and network level. The national monetary overviews have never deciphered ladies' remaining task at hand into monitory terms.
Sustenance Situation: The most recent National Nutrition Survey 2011 uncovered that ailing health is predominant in GB particularly among youngsters and ladies of childbearing age. Around 32 percent with low birth weigh.on Body Mass Index (BMI), about 9.5 percent moms are corpulent and 15 percent are underweight,Nutrient An, Iodine and Zinc among kids as long as 5 years and moms. In common and territorial correlation, breastfeeding was most elevated (92.2 percent) in Gilgit Baltistan The detailed utilization of iodized salt for cooking was 94.8 percent.
Requirements in the entrance to farming expansion administrations and social assurance wellbeing nets: Men and ladies ranchers don't have introduction to present day cultivating rehearses because of powerless augmentation administrations. Access and Accessibility to innovation are absent. As referenced before, absence of ladies faculty in totally concerned offices further confines ladies ranchers access to improved and motorized cultivating frameworks.
Institutional and Policy Reforms: The state government needs to present and execute unique ladies shares up to 10% for enlistment in the general population and private area characteristic asset the executives divisions. Powerful institutional and lawful changes are required in all divisions counting horticulture that ought to energize ladies to work, particularly in the farming, domesticated animals, and ranger service divisions.
Women Focused Projects: Future activities structure and usage ought to be sexual orientation delicate. There is a requirement for explicit tasks intended for the individuals living in wretched neediness dependent on their particular issues and needs. The least fortunate families ought to be urged through various impetuses to turn out to be a piece of the institutional arrangement alread existing at the town, UC and locale level.
privileges: Women's interest in network land conveyance choices ought to be empowered. The two people ought to have equivalent rights to desolate terrains created by them. Mindfulness ought to be brought to consider ladies up in dynamic while selling and purchasing of land.
Water system Infrastructure Development: Rehabilitation of water system foundation through on-ranch water the executives and new water system framework is fundamental. The legislature foundations. Likewise, sufficient degree of financing for fix, upkeep and activityof water system frameworks ought to be given in the yearly spending plans. As ladies are the extreme directors of water at the homestead level, they by and large face water shortage issues both for water system and drinking purposes along these lines there is have to fuse ladies .
Quality Inputs: Provision of confirmed seeds and planting material of improved quality in expansion to game plan of essential horticultural sources of info, Such as concoction fertilzers, hardware. seeds, and so forth on financed rates to ladies ranchers will help improve neighborhood economy.
Limit Building: Capacity of ladies and men should be fortified to support them Sell their farming produce at better rates, to decrease post collect misfortunes, and improve on strategies forms engaged with picking, bundling, evaluating, item improvement, what's more, affirmation. Discount showcases likewise should be built up.
Money related Assistance: Considerable work has been done at government and common society level to improve individuals' entrance to moderate monetary administrations. Since ladies need resource possession, there is a need to make specific money related organizations or present monetary items in the current structures that can help address this issue and can encourage ladies to begin their own undertaking. These monetary organizations ought to likewise help create business abilities in ladies
Dairy Development: Dairy cultivating and handling is a region with high potential for focusing on ladies' advancement. This should be possible through presenting improved breeds, silage making, transpor tatiorn offices, improved grub assortments, better ranch the board rehearses, convenient and proficient accessibility of veterinary wellbeing administrations, and foundation of coordinated milk assortment and transportation framework.
Preservation of common assets: The legislature and improvement accomplices ought to put forth extraordinary attempts to include ladies through urging them to become of the protection boards individually of trust for preservation of regular assets and high fields lands. Association of ladies in the board of timberland and untamed life assets and connecting of preservation endeavors to salary creating openings, for example, trophy chasing, eco the travel industry and carbon exchanging, is fundamental to ration these rare assets
Improving Nutrition: In request to give the necessary nourishment, it will be imperative to advance nousenold vegetable creation. Poor and little tarmers don't nave the budgetary asset to purchase these things from showcase and vigorously depend on grain. This satisfies their caloric prerequisite however not the absence of sustenance. Developing vegetables and heartbeats will make up for the dietary benefit of the nourishment. Correspondingly heartbeats can make up for meat, which is by and large past the buying intensity of poor ranchers. Ladies can be developed and material of the soil to made the dietary substance of their family's eating routine particularly in lean seasons.