Pakistan-United States relations. Loralai
Pakistan-United States relations.
Relations between countries are always based on bilateral principles. Unfortunately, in case of Pakistan the ground reality has always been changed from United States of America. Pakistan was a newly emerged country during 1950s, and her leadership was busy to handle the worsened situation, other countries were busy in industrial and agricultural competition. After the world war II, states such as Soviet Union and United States (US) were in cold war. In this condition the newly born country received invitation from both sides. As Pakistan is a Muslim country and Soviet has Godless ideology which was not suited to leadership. So, the country's inclination had towards US. In 1950s, the country was US allied. Pakistan joined Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) called Manila Pact in 1954 and the Central Treaty Organization (Baghdad Pact) in 1955. Pak- US enjoyed the relationship till 1960s, after which, Pakistan came in favour of China and US in support of India. The relationship in 1962, more wrecked when Sino-India war took place. Washington declared India as most closed ally in Southeast Asia. Before 1970s, US shown realistic ties. In 1971, war against India, US helped Pakistan by aid arms and military sharing intelligence. It was done due to Soviet fear, because losing war for Pakistan means paved way to Soviet. In the Zia-ul-Haq regime, both states enjoyed relationship during 1979-1988. Than the era of 1990s was started when Pakistan faced many restrictions. The country was degraded by Pressler Amendment to watched on nuclear proliferation. All types of aid for Pakistan were stopped by US. Although, India had detonated nuclear bomb in 1974 but on 18 May 1998, India conducted nuclear tests. In response Pakistan conducted nuclear tests on 28 May 1998. United States imposed further restrictions on both countries by Glenn Amendment. However, the sanctions were lifted in 2001, in the same year 9/11 tragedy occurred in US. This incident has changed world politics. For the compensation of American citizens US declared war on Afghanistan with the help of NATO. To target Taliban's chief such as Al Qa'ida, Haqqani network and Tahreek e Taliban Pakistan unmanned flying planes used in 2004. These drone attacks were targeting militants group in Pakistani territory. Meanwhile, President Musharaf has given permission for some attacks in tribal areas. But when Pakistan Peoples Party came into power has shown annoyance to US but these drones attack kept on to Pakistan Muslim League N government. In the result of 522 drone attacks from 2004 to 2015 approximately 3852 causalities afforded Pakistani nation. These attacks were not decreased until November 1, 2013 when Tahreek e Taliban Pakistan chief Hakeem ullah Mehsud was killed in Abbottabad (near Islamabad). The operation has given birth to mistrust. In these type of operations innocent people lost lives. After watching the inhuman violations Imran Khan took stance on drones. He compelled Obama's administration to stopped these erroneous attempts in Khyber Pakhtun Khwa (KPK). However, Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) kept on the country violation. CIA spy Ramyon Davis killed two men in Lahore, Pakistan in January 27, 2011. Than CIA conducted Operation Neptune Spear in Abbottabad and killed Ossam Bin Ladin in May 2,2011 by spy Dr. Shakeel Afridi who had done Ossam DNA test. Shakeel was later sentence 33 years jailed. Additionally, the violations are not stopped here in November at Salala Air base an offensive attack was did on Pakistani patrolling soldiers. In incident 28 soldiers were martyred by NATO near Afghanistan border. Consequently, on public demonstration the government has issued ordered to evacuate Shamsi Air base which was using for drone attacks on tribal areas. Alongside US was insisting on Pakistan for 'do more policy' regarding Pak- India border. India is considered enemy of Pakistan from the day of independence by Pakistan's. Several skirmishes has been occurred on Kashmir issue. Despite all these issues, Bush administration signed nuclear engagement with India. In 2005 and 2008 not only Defense Agreement but also Nuclear Civil Agreement deal signed with India. Additionally $14 billion military equipment deal and granting six nuclear projects to India are the factors beyond dilapidated relationship. These deal affected bilateral relationship between Pak-US. Pakistan has changed her foreign policy under the auspices of Prime Minister Imran Khan administration. He has rejected 'do more policy' from the first day of premiership. Prime Minister Imran Khan visited United States in 2019. During a meeting with President Trump on July 21, 2019 he stressed on peace dialogue and bilateral relationship. Khan was also appreciated for his speech which he delivered in United Nations General Assembly ( UNGA). Although, Pakistan was remained in socioeconomic from 2000 but she has given many sacrifices for world peace order. The war on terror brought to Pakistan due to US mistrust and operations. In result, the country has lost billions of dollars and humans life. Pakistan images was blurred in comity of nations. US must to reviewed her policy regarding Pakistan because Pakistan has great importance in Southeast Asia. The country can play vital role in Afghan peace dialogue and settlement. On the other hand, US must show some elasticity towards Pakistan. USA should to play role as mediator on Kashmir issue. The Americans should not violate the sovereignty of Pakistan which can hurt people. Dual police ought to not be about Pakistan because this type of diplomacy can not run for long. Setting on one table is best for both countries, because geopolitics has been rotating for cold war.
By Mehmood Khan
By; Mehmood Khan
Other News Pakistan
This is a agricultural manner in which the plant tissues are connected so as to continue their rise collectively. The upward part of the joined plant is known as scion and on the other hand downward part is known as root stock. The progression of this combination demands that the vascular tissues should grow collectively and this type of joining is known as inosculation. This method is extensively used in asexual propagation of plants grown on large scale for horticultural and agricultural dealings. In almost all cases a plant is selected for roots called stock or root stock. And then for stems, leaves, flowers, or fruits another plant is selected known as scion. The scion plant possesses desired genes to be cloned in future yielding by means of stock-scion plant. The vascular cambium of stock and scion should be set in association with each other for fruitful grafting. Studies have shown that attachment of phloem sets up after 3 days and in case of xylem it established after 7 days of pioneer grafting. Grafting joints are not much stronger than the natural ones because only the new formed tissues will fuse with each other not the older ones.
FACTORS FOR SUCCESSFUL GRAFTING
- Compatibility for stock and scion:
As grafting happen when the vascular tissues of stock and scion connects. The plants like monocots can’t be grafted because they are deficient in vascular bundles. It is a common perceptive that more the two plants resemble with each other genetically the more the grafting will be successful. The chance of success for grafting of plants from same species is greater than the plants from different species. Sometimes the plants of same genus also show successful grafting.
- Cambium alignment and pressure:
For successful grafting you should apply firm pressure on the joint where vascular cambium of stock and scion connects so that the tissue connects with each other quickly and the orientation of the joint should be in the line of normal growth. This will enhance the swift movement of water and nutrients from root stock to scion.
- Completed during appropriate stage of plant:
The time when stock and scion of plant are able to yield callus the grafting will be completed. Temperature also effects grafting and high temperature can cease callus formation.
- Proper care of graft site:
When the grafting is done it is necessary to take good care of plant till the plant restores its health. You can use different grafting tapes and waxes to save plant from excessive water loss at the joint of stock and scion. If the plant structure is weak you should provide support to the plant by twine or string.
- Cutting tools:
You have to make sure that the cutting tools are pointed and sharp so that they will give less damage to the tissues of plant; to prevent the transmission of disease it is necessary to keep the tools clean. Cutting knife for usual grafting should have blade of 3 inches and handle of 4 inches. The knives used especially for grafting are bud-grafting knives, surgical knives, and pruning knives. If the size of stock is too large cleavers, chisels, and saws can be used to cut.
- Disinfecting tools:
Using tools treated with disinfectants will make sure that the grafting place is free from pathogens. Absolute alcohol is a standard sterilizing agent.
- Graft seals:
These seals make the grafting spot hydrated. These should be tight enough to stop excessive water loss and loose enough to assist plant growth. Specialized types of clay, wax, petroleum jelly and adhesive tapes are used as graft seals.
- Tying and support materials:
If the structure of plant is weak then it is necessary to provide support to the plant to keep scion and stock in the place. Strips, twine, nails and splints are the support materials for grafting.
- Grafting machines:
Grafting machines are available to reduce the time consumed because doing it by hand consumes a lot of time and skill. There are machines which have ability to graft 800 seedlings per hour.
This method is utilized to connect plants together that are tough to graft. In this method plants are grown near to each other and both have root stocks and then joined and grow collectively from that point of joining. Each scion and stock has its own parents. This grafting will complete at any time of year.
Bud grafting is also known as chip budding in which a bud is used in place of twig. The most usual example of budding is rose grafting. First cut off the shoot of the stock plant then a bud is taken from the host plant; the ground surface of bud is placed under the bark of the stem of stock plant. On stock plant any bud except grafted bud which starts emerging is cut off.
In this method first of all give a small cut in the stock with the help of a sharp knife and then put sharp end of scion into the stock. The best season for this type of grafting is early spring. This method is best for scion of 1cm on a stock of large diameter. First give a clean from to the downward on the stock or branch to make a cleft of 3cm. The scion should have long deep edge. Now put the scion into the cleft and push it down to the end. Now tape the scion from the upper end of the stock to keep the scion in spot and now overspread grafting wax. It helps to prevent excessive water loss.
In whip grafting a slanting cut is given to the stock and scion and then connected. Then the grafted end is sealed with a soft sealant to reduce water loss and attack of germs. The most usual variation is a whip and a tongue and graft it is a tough variation but the chances of success is very high as the cambium connection between scion and stock is very good. This grafting method is used in fruit trees grown on large scale. This method is commonly utilized with stock of diameter 1cm and the diameter of scion should be nearly equal to stock.
In this method less stock is required as compared to cleft grafting and it will possess shape of a tree. Commonly 6-8 buds of scion are used in this technique. A cut is given on the branch of length 1cm and then the scion is inserted into the branch. Scion must have an angle of 35 degree to the stock. And then it should be covered with grafting materials.
It is also known as banana graft and is usually utilized for pecans. It is declared for most cambium covering but this technique is tough. In this the diameters of the stock and scion should be of same size. Skin of the stock is striped into four flaps and the hardwood is eliminated this will look like a striped banana. This technique is very tough to learn.
Awl grafting consumes minimum time and resources as compared to other grafting techniques. This method is discovered accidently by an experienced grafter. In this method grafting is done by utilizing a screwdriver to give a cut in the bark not to cut the cambium layer. Then the scion is inserted into the stock.
Veneer grafting is also known as inlay grafting, this technique is utilized for stock having diameter greater than 3cm and the thickness of scion should be as pencil. A cleavage is made on the stock to same size of scion then it is inserted into the cleft and covered with tape.
In this method a small sized scion is grafted on a thick stock. On the thick stock 4cm parallel deep cut is given to the stock and then the bark is removed from the wood. The scion is of wedge shape, cambium showing off on both side is inserted into the backside of stock, with flat face towards the wood.
CULTIVATED PLANTS PROPAGTED BY GRAFTING:
• Apple – grafting
• Avocado – grafting
• Citrus (lemon, orange, grapefruit, Tangerine, dayap) – grafting
• Grapes – stem cuttings, grafting, aerial layering
• Mango – ¬grafting
• Nut crops (walnut, pecan) – grafting
• Peach – grafting
• Pear – grafting
• Rubber Plant - bud grafting
Naeem ul Hassan & Dr. Muhammad yaseen
Department of Agriculture Extension,
College of Agriculture, UOS, Sargodha
(Keti Bandar News By Adam Janyaro) Garho police raided gutka pedlers and arrested three peddlers Gul Hussain Memon, Ayoob Memon Nazeer Memom. Police launched FIR against the man and recoverrd Gutka
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