مقامی۔ مردان Khyber Pak خبریں ، Pākistān
Interlinking Meta-Cognition with university's students academic achievements in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
This study aims at investigating the association between metacognitive awareness and student’s
academic achievements. The study undertakes the objectives and hypotheses on Low, Average and
High achievers in addition to assess the effects of metacognition awareness level on student’s
academic achievement. Through multistage stratified random sampling, data was collected from 160
undergraduate students, studying in Department of Mathematics & Department of English in Abdul
Wali Khan University, Khyber Pukhtunkhwa. Data was collected through Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) by schraw and Dennison(1994),CGPA of the students,self-developed objective
type subject test. Descriptive Statistics & statistical tests (Chi
square & Linear Regression) were
applied for data analyses. The results showed that metacognitive awareness had significant effect on
student’s academic achievement (CGPA) in Department of English whereas it was found to be
insignificant in Department of Mathematics. The study recommends an
introductory course on
Educational Psychology, which cater the metacognitive needs of the students. Moreover, research
studies are recommended in the subjects except English and Mathematics. The cultural difference of
the students, teachers, and locality
of the universities might be taken care of future perspective of
Learning is a continuous, rather complicated & cyclic process which plays important role in academic
development of learners (Dweck, 2002). Metacognition is a new emerging concept, which enable the
learner to be smart worker, not hard worker. Flavell in 1976 introduce a term meta-memory, which provided base for the introduction of metacognition in educational psychology(Baltaciand & Akpinar
2011; Kayashima et al., 2004;
Yore & Treagust, 2006). Metacognition is further elaborated
as know how about mental processes for learning & regulation of mental processes (Brown, 1987). It is the
capability through which students implicate cognitive processes in thinking & understanding about
and regulating their cognitive processes for the learning processes (Schraw & Dennison, 1994; Sungur & Senler, 2009). Meta-Cognition can be explained as the
knowledge about selection of appropriate strategies
for solving problems and fruitful learning. It actually gives information about when, how, why to use
any strategy for performing any learning task (Santrock, 2008).
It is generally assumed that students are not using metacognition consciously in their
academic as well as general tasks because metacognition is neither taught nor openly discussed
concept in the educational context in Pakistan. Metacognition enables the learner to be expert of their
own cognitive processes (evaluate, observe, monitor & regulate), which are important for learning. It
simply means that how, why and when they understand a concept as well as don‘t understand a
concept. According to research studies, significant association is found among Metacognition,
intelligence, and academic achievements (
Bağçeciet et al., 2011; Young & Fry, 2008; Dunning et al., 2003; Desoete & Roeyers, 2002; Kruger & Dunning, 1999;
Borkowski, Carr, & Pressely, 1987;
Sternberg, 1986a; Sternberg, 1984
). Meta-cognition is important
process for in
-depth involvement of
students in the learning process (Costa &Kellick, 2009). Highly strategic, Problem solver and good
predictors of own scores are those learners who are highly metacognitive aware (Artzt & Thomas, 1992; Garner & Alexander, 1989; Swanson, 1992). Researchers suggest metacognition as important
component for fruitful learning and high academic achievement
Taebee et al., 1998;
Awarded degrees after
completion and Cumulative
Grade Point Average (CGPA)
are mostly representative of
of individual student. In the current study, the Grade Point
Average (GPA) of individual stud
ents in previously completed semester‘s results were considered
their academic achievements.
The Govt. of Pakistan has focused on higher education and particularly
in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa over the last two decades, and to enhance the outcomes of higher education,
29 public sector universities have been instituted in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa as per mentioned phases: before year
2000, from 2000 to 2009, & from 2009 to 2018. A total of
nineteen (19) state-owned universities were established In the 3rd phase. Abdul Wali Khan
University Mardan (AWKUM) is the only university in 3rd phase, wh
ich mothered five universities in
Therefore, it is considered that the academic parameters in this university will be more Up to date than
others. Hence, the present study explains understanding of metacognition
among the Students in the chosen subjects of Mathematics and English. Metacognition in these two areas is most effective process for best learning (Benito, 2000; Ceylan, & Harputlu,
2015; Karbalaei, 2011;
Schoenfeld, 2009; Wenden, 1998
) but above cited reports were content limited mostly in the relevant
subjects. Our study co-relates
the general awareness of metacognition versus academic achievements of students & investigates its
effects on student‘s academic achievements, with special focus on Low, Average, and High achievers, in the selected teaching departments in AWKUM.For one, the
following objectives have been developed to answer the effects of Meta-Cognition on students‘
Objectives of the Study
To assess Meta-Cognitive Awareness
level of undergraduate students.
To investigate the effects of
level on students‘ academic
To find association between
level and students‘ gender.
To find association between
level and High, Average and Low
There is relationship between Meta
Cognitive Awareness level and academic achievements of
There is difference in Meta
Cognitive Awareness level
of female and male students.
There is difference in Meta
Cognitive Awareness level
of High, Average and Low achievers.
Learning is a merely natural process which take place throughout the life, as an individual expose to
the Various events in his/her life. It is also time dependent process that means more exposure led to more learning. However, it depends on individual capabilities which a person has, that how much
he/she can learn from a single event in life. The knowledge of
metacognition and its appropriate
application could be helpful in minimizing the individual‘s differential learning. The proper utilization
of metacognitive strategies by subject tutors and respective students could lead to noteworthy impact
academic achievements of students. Our data exhibited that the students‘ academic achievements were
in direct relation to their metacognitive awareness. The previous reports were found in accordance to
the outcomes of department of English in our study (Coutinho, 2007,
Dunning et.al., 2003; Kodak& Boyacá
, 2010; Ndidiamaka, 2010; Pintrich & De Groot, 1990; Sperling et.al., 2002; Taebee et.al.,
1998; Young, Fry, & Jan, 2008). Furthermore, the student‘s data in Department of Mathematics
produced insignificant effect on academic achievements (CGPA) of students who were metacognitively aware. The previous reports (Cubukcu
, 2009; Mousoulides & Philippou, 2005) were in accordance to our findings.
For the purpose of improvement in achieving desired academic goa
ls, we recommend the following
points based on our data analysis and discussing it in light of related literature via Metacognitive
Knowledge and Metacognitive Self-regulation.
Keeping in view the Metacognitive needs of students in both departments,
include an introductory course on Educational.
For improvement of Critical Thinking among the students in both departments, Faculty
members might also be offered with refresher courses.
Teachers may also be trained for enabling the students
on how to undertake self-questioning,
self-Assessment, self-regulation and thinking aloud during learning activities. If faculty in
both departments of AWKUM lack the skill in that, then they might arrange training sessions
for teaching faculty based on th
e recommended strategies of Metacognition Knowledge &
Being the key target for learning, the students need to be evaluated by their tutors according
to the parameters discussed in the present research. The students, failing to comply with
discussed parameters might be provided with appropriate proper
on the respective subject. The students
should be provided by the experts in the
University, if not available at the institution, then sessions migh
t be arranged on the monthly
basis for such students by inviting the experts from other Universities.
Our data exhibited that the students tends to apply metacognitive strategies primarily for learn
by rote instead of conceptual learning and comprehension.
The tutors and counselling experts
must focus on realizing the students that understanding the information is primary to
memorizing, otherwise, it might lead them to be conceptually weak in the subject and unable
for further learning.
Furthermore, the researchers need to evaluate the impact of application of metacognitive
strategies in the various subjects excluding Mathematics & English. Moreover, the cultural
diversity might be considered during future research regimes.
For detail study click on below link: https://doi.org/10.36902/sjesr-vol3-iss4-2020(239-246)
Awareness of Metacognition is one of new emerging and interesting concept in education psychology. It's introduction has a link with Flavel work and latter on giving the name metamemory to his new introduced concept.Its umbrella ⛱️ term covers two major components; Metacognitive knowledge and self-regulation which further have 8 minor components.
Many months have elapsed! And yeah alot of temps (time) has passed that we couldn't see lumiére (light) at the end of tunnel. We couldn't see a ray of espérer (hope). We often have had glimpse bitter memoirs. We couldn't have coup d' oeil (glance) a true and perfect union. I like to be a boring soul. Being boring is bit inquisitive. Because boredom is something which we could feel in high times. If you're a boring person then you might ask comme la craie et le fromage (like chalk and cheese ) queries alternatively. And its been cool and wacky. Sometimes it have been far-reaching but we might behave like contemplative. Asking queries about politique (politics) is normal but it depends on our interest which would require a profundity. Discussing political system of Pakistan would sometimes blow your mind. But being a high-five class citizen we have need of our elementary rights. It consists of روٹی , کپڑا , مکان , تبدیلی , ضروریات وغیرہ.
Being boredom is better. Sometimes we discuss different questions about education system of Pakistan. Personally I love to talk about education. It is something to be loved. It would enhance and would strengthen your mind. Cool. Our education system is not on fleek. But we and our government have to take major steps to improve our education-system. We know that we've political, economic and social challenges and we're facing it very bravely. Cool.
In the amid of garden something thrown by a gust of wind. Though its the age of satire and the age of complications that ignite certain times on us. Everyone has multiple constrains but I find that this age seems to be obscure. So there is no transparency at all, no cool fervor, no newness and no ingenuity. We are often quashed by nature in different embodiment. We only manipulate glamour and enchantment woefully we are worthless and blank from inside. We are full of impediments. We are confuse that monopolize us in some other way. But many times we boldly overthrew our twofold personalities. It would seems clearly that we are inconsistent. We could not set and could not be fix at all. But what to do my dear ones?
We are inimical to our soul mate and pure relations. Just focus on yourself. Give ample time to yourself for the sake of that you start loving yourself and you entrench your own respect. Do it.
If you try it you'll find a true person which still exists in YOU/YOURSELF but in many forms many embodiment.
Always be TRUE to yourself and be true to your blood relations. Because they are very incentive. Don't harm yourself. Oust negativities from yourself. I know we are innocent. We are loving. We are admirable.
You know we are QUETZAL that chirps in a lovely way even in hard and miserable conditions. Be like QUETZAL that sings like a REBBEC in lap. If we remove detestation and hatred from ourselves we'll find a pure thaddeus (courageous heart). Don't be malice to others.
DON'T ACCUSE OTHERS
DON'T BLAME OTHERS
TRUE TO YOURSELF
We are helms in others life where we are doing jeopardize jobs but we wouldn't have any notion that we're doing deeds wheather it is right or wrong. But what to do? We all are in brown study. May be we are feeling down likwise we are in melancholic mood. But how can we change ourselve with time? We could never have try righteous things. We're bad eggs. We are pretending all the things likewise that we are not to the nines. We all might have mixed feelings about anything everything. We might have been stuck. We always see dark things. We never had try vivid and vibrant things. We are scornful beasts. We are busy likewise we cheat people in any and every relation. But we have to subdue our ego. We have to bring it to the knees. We have to pulverize our bad side. We have to crucify our negativity. Go ahead. Scout yourself. Love respect. Respect yourself.
بغیر عنوان کے...
Sometimes we think that we're star-studded soul. Less but frequently. Sometimes we feel that we're wacky persona. Hardly we're in a condition where we are not able to move , where we're not able to search a real emralds which would add strength and support to our soul. Even we're in state of isolation but hardly we won't able to enjoy state of tranquility. It sucks. Why we have not an inner peace? Why we think others will do our work? The third part will never ever do anything for us. They will waste our time. Why are we so malefic? We ourselves are horrific. We have terrible faces just like we're monsters. Can we remove mask from our pretty faces? No. Because we like to play with the sentiments of others. We trust blindly. We think negatively. And why not.We speak in inimical way. We never have trust ourselves. There is no transparency in our soul. We breathe in a vilifing environment. Every single day we pulverize our wings. And why not. But we do not have any idea why we behave like this.