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Other News Pakistan
Democracy or Dictatorship
Democracy is the invention of Greece. Plato and the teacher of Plato's Socrates, who were also from Greek were opposing the democracy. Because , they have examined that democracy is fruitful only in ideal form, which is not possible at all. Abraham Lincoln, the famous American President, said that democracy is form of government which is by the people, for the people, and of the people. In other words, you can say that “majority is the authority” is the concept behind democracy. Now if there is a conflict regarding Country security or Education issues between 100 illiterate persons and 50 Ph.D. scholars, then who will win in a democracy? Simply, they will go for voting and the result will be in the favors of 100 illiterate. On 13 August 1947, when the Sun of darkness sit, and on 14 August when the sun of hope, the sun of a struggle arose, the newborn country thought that a time for non-stop progress has come. But unfortunately, just after 10/11 years, Pakistan came under has first Martial law, and till today it is under Martial law either in one form or another. Henry Clinton, in of her interview said that Pakistan is a deep state mean that a country which is indirectly controlled by their military. They chose among them and then use him against them. But when he is near to get maturity, they demolish him. Before, When Imran khan was not elected or selected for the Chair, He said in of his interview, that there is no need for an extension in Army chief period, no matter if it is war. But why has he given an extension to the army chief? Now, turn your mind back to the Nawaz Sharif era. If Pakistan military is really interfering in the political issues, Why he didn’t speak the same thing, when they were blessing with the chair? which he is shouting nowadays. Because, they have no concern with this country. They always look for their personal interest. So far, neither democracy nor dictatorship has done for this country. We have already lost Bengal, we can not manage any other loss. A time has come to be united. To stand like one nation. Every individual has to perform has a duty. Otherwise, it will be too late to recover.
Long-live Pakistan ??.
Algorand’s Pure Proof Of Stake Consensus Advantages
The rapid development of blockchain technology and their numerous emerging applications has received huge attention in recent years. The distributed consensus mechanism is the backbone of a blockchain network. It plays a key role in ensuring the network’s security, integrity, and performance. Most current blockchain networks have been deploying the proof-of-work consensus mechanisms, in which the consensus is reached through intensive mining processes. However, this mechanism has several limitations, e.g., energy inefficiency, delay, and vulnerable to security threats. To overcome these problems, a new consensus mechanism has been developed recently, namely proof of stake, which enables to achieve the consensus via proving the stake ownership. This mechanism is expected to become a cutting-edge technology for future blockchain networks.
What is pure Proof of stake?
Pos consensus model called Proof-of-Stake. It has benefits of being both fast and secure. It works by randomly choosing small committees from a large pool of validators for each consensus round. The large pool of validators ensures decentralization and randomization ensures security, while the use of small committees for consensus makes for a fast and highly scalable consensus method. Proof of Stake took a significantly different path to reaching consensus. Unlike the Proof of Work algorithm, which uses computational resources to solve cryptographic problems to secure the network and validate blocks, the Proof of Stake algorithm uses an election process that selects the node that will validate each block.
This election process can use a number of factors including randomization, the number of coins being held in the staking wallet, the staking age of coins, or other factors.
Difference between POW and POS
Proof of Work and Proof of Stake systems differ in how their cryptocurrencies are created and how individuals are rewarded. In the case of Proof of Work blockchains the miners are rewarded with newly created cryptocurrency as part of the mining process. In the case of Proof of Stake blockchains the stakers are typically rewarded using transaction fees.
One other difference that is immediately noticed with Proof of Stake systems is that their blocks are “forged” rather than being “mined” like in Proof of Work systems. Many of the Proof of Stake systems begin as Proof of Work systems and later switch, while others will get their start by selling a stash of pre-mined coins.
Algorand Pure Proof-Of- Stake approach:
Algorand is an open source public blockchain based on a pure proof-of-stake consensus protocol that supports the scalability and transaction finality for billions users, and protocol that aims to deliver decentralization, scale, and security for everyone. Whose goal is to create a transparent system in which everyone can achieve success through decentralized network using POS protocol.
Main advantage by choosing proof of stake:
⦁ Easily scalable to accommodate thousands of transactions per second;
⦁ As the number of nodes increases so to does security and speed increase;
⦁ Each individual virtual chain is able to customize its consensus model to optimize for cost-savings, throughput, fairness or latency;
⦁ The use of Byzantine fault tolerance.
Proof of stake solves the resource usage issue, because it does not use miners to solve complex puzzles. Instead it uses validators, or entities who hold coins (a stake in the system) and are able to prove transactions and blocks based on their “stake” in the system.
In the proof of stake, the validators are paid only the transaction fees of the network, there are no mining payouts. The chance of being selected to create the next block in the chain is dependent on the amount of coins held by the validator. More coins means a greater change to be chosen. So, a person with 5,000 coins is five times more likely to be chosen to create the next block versus someone with 1,000 coins.
Once the block is created it is then committed to the blockchain, typically by having some system to sign off on newly created blocks. There are different ways to handle this, but they are all subject to the same problem. Thus proof-of-stake consensus mechanisms, effective governance and community coordination can protect networks even after a 51% attack. Honest nodes can ‘fork’ the network to render the attackers’ resources worthless.
This cross-chain access is achieved through the use of smart contracts, One example of this in action is an atomic swap. where developers are capable of securely moving a part to expand across the globe, by tokenized assets such as derivatives, options, swaps, securities, and more. A cross-chain atomic swap may indeed take 3 hours to complete. In Algorand, all transactions are final and instantly confirmed.
Cross-chain Interoperability Advantages
⦁ It avoids the need for difficult and painful migrations if a move from a private to public blockchain (or vice-versa) is needed;
⦁ Developers are able to use the layer 2 ecosystem for their tokens (i.e. exchanges and wallets)
⦁ Take advantage of both scalability and the liquidity of the base-layer
How Staking Works
Those users interested in participating in the forging process on a Proof of Stake blockchain can do so by locking a number of coins as their stake. The size of the stake is used to determine if an individual node will be selected to validate and forge the next block. Those with a larger stake have a greater chance of becoming the next to validate a block and receive a reward.
Any time a node is selected to forge a block it begins by checking each transaction in the block to determine if they are all valid. If they are the node will forge the block and add it to the blockchain. In return the node receives the transaction fees associated with that block as a reward.
Several unique variations on the basic Proof of Stake algorithm have been added to this process in order to avoid the wealthiest nodes being favored consistently in the selection process. Two of these methods are Coin Age Selection and Randomized Block Selection.
Coin Age Selection
This method chooses validating nodes based on how long the coins held there have been staked. The number of coins being staked are multiplied by the length of time those coins have been held to determine coin age.
After forging a block the coin age is reset to zero which has the effect of making certain a period of time must pass before those coins can be used again to forge a block. This method prevents nodes with large stakes from controlling the blockchain.
Randomized Block Selection
In this method the selection isn’t really as random as you might think based on the name. The validating node is selected by searching for nodes that have the combination of the largest stake and the lowest hash value. Because blockchains make the holdings of each address, and thus the size of stakes, public it is usually possible to forecast the next forger based on available information.
There are many different cryptocurrencies using the Proof of Stake method, and each one has its own combination of methods and rules used to validate and forge new blocks. Each combination was selected as what the developers feel is best for the blockchain and for its users.
Why Use Staking?
The stake in the Proof of Stake system is a financial incentive for the operation of nodes, and to ensure that nodes will not validate fraudulent transactions.
This works because any time the network detects a fraudulent transaction the node that forged the transaction loses some part of its stake, and is blocked from forging blocks in the future. This means as long as the stake remains higher than the forging reward the validating node stands to lose more by forging fraudulent transactions.
This is also a secure system because to control the network and freely approve fraudulent transactions a node would have to own a stake equal to 51% or more of all staked coins. In nearly every case this is impractical if not impossible given the large value of most blockchains. Imagine trying to control 51% of the circulating supply of a cryptocurrency with a market capitalization of $1 billion.
As you can see by this point, the major advantages of using the Proof of Stake algorithm are energy or resource efficiency and blockchain security.
Where Proof of Work systems have seen mining become increasingly centralized due to the expenses involved with running a mining rig, the Proof of Stake systems are increasingly decentralized because it is both cheap and easy for users to run their own nodes.
This encourages an ever greater number of users to set up their own nodes. Additionally, the small forging reward and decreased need for releasing large amounts of coins as a reward often helps to stabilize the price of any particular Proof of Stake cryptocurrency.
Algorand (ALGO) was created as a decentralized, permissionless blockchain with the goal of enabling a borderless economy. It aims to solve the major blockchain problem of scalability while maintaining decentralization and security. Algorand does all this and also gives users extremely low transaction fees, which is crucial if the project expects to create a borderless economy.
Algorand uses a unique consensus algorithm known as Pure Proof of Stake (PPoS). It allows the system to reach consensus without a central authority, and can tolerate malicious actors in the system so long as the majority of the stake is not malicious. Unlike some other Proof of Stake systems, PPoS has no mechanism for delegation, which avoids the problem of a single user or small set of users gathering a majority of voting power.
The Algorand network also allows for the construction of decentralized applications, and with a reported throughput of 1,000 transactions per second it is a good alternative for dApp developers looking for a faster, low cost network.
Anyone holding 1 ALGO or more in any non-custodial wallet is able to earn staking rewards with each block created. The staking rewrds were initially set at a 10% annual rate, but as of April 2020 the annual reward is 5.46% according to StakingRewards.com or about 8% on Binance Staking.
We like Algorand for staking because it is made quite simple. No nodes need to be run, and there are no other special requirements. Users only need to hold their ALGO in a supported non-custodial wallet, and payments are made roughly every 20 minutes.
To protect from the possibility of a 51% attack, the proof protocol seems like a good choice. It offers the benefits of both of the most utilized consensus algorithms, and the hybrid is more secure than either separately. proof-of-stake consensus mechanisms, effective governance and community coordination can protect networks even after a 51% attack. Honest nodes can ‘fork’ the network to render the attackers’ resources worthless.
Join us : https://www.algorand.com/
Quaid_i_Azam Abuot Allama Iqbal
Mr. M. A. Jinnah issued the following condolence message on the death of Allama Iqbal:
I am extremely sorry to hear the sad news of the death of Sir Muhammad Iqbal. He was a remarkable poet of world wide fame and his work will live for ever. His services to his country and the Muslims are so numerous that his record can be compared with that of the greatest Indian that ever lived. He was an ex-President of the All-India Muslim League and a President of the Provincial Muslim League of the Punjab till the very recent time when his unforeseen illness compelled him to resign. But he was the staunchest and the most loyal champion of the policy and programme of the All-India Muslim League.
To me he was a friend, guide and philosopher and during the darkest moments through which the Muslim League had to go, he stood like a rock and never flinched one single moment and as a result just only three days ago he must have read of been informed of the complete unity that was achieved in Calcutta of the Muslim leaders of the Punjab and today I can say with pride that the Muslims of Punjab are wholeheartedly with the League and have come under the flag of the All-India Muslim League, which must have been a matter of greatest satisfaction to him. In the achievement of this unity Sir Muhammad Iqbal played a most signal part. My sincerest and deepest sympathy go out to his family at this moment in their bereavement in losing him, and it is a terrible loss to India and the Muslims particularly at this juncture.
Reported Speech at a public meeting to mourn the death of Allama Iqbal, Calcutta, April 21, 1938
The Star of India, April 22, 1938
Mr. M. A. Jinnah said that the sorrowful news of the death of Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal had plunged the world of Islam in gloom mourning. Sir Iqbal was undoubtedly one of the greatest poets, philosophers and seers of humanity of all times. He took a prominent part in the politics of the country and in the intellectual and cultural reconstruction of the Islamic world. His contribution to the literature and thought of the world will live for ever.
“To me he was a personal friend, philosopher and guide and as such the main source of my inspiration and spiritual support. While he was ailing in his bed it was he who as the President of the Punjab Provincial Muslim League, stood single-handed as a rock in the darkest days in the Punjab by the side of the League banner, undaunted by the opposition of the whole world. When on account of his serious illness he was confined to bed, he resigned the post of the Presidentship of the Punjab League but was instead elected its Patron. He still continued to guide the work of the Punjab League from his bed and had somebody to reply to all letters concerning the League. It would have been a matter of great satisfaction for him to hear the news with great delight that the Bengal and Punjab Muslims were absolutely united on the sommon platform of the All-India Muslim League. In that achievement the unseen contribution of Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal was the greatest. No greater blow has struck the Muslims at this juncture.”
Quaid-i-Azam made the following comments extempore during his presidential address:
Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal’s death is an irrepairable loss to Muslim India. He was a personal friend of mine and composer of the finest poetry in the world. He will live as long as Islam will live. His noble poetry interprets the true aspirations of the Muslims of India. It will remain an inspiration for us and for generations after us.”
Comment made after the passage of Lahore Resolution, March 23, 1940
Sometime after this meeting, Jinnah turned to Matlub Saiyid, who had been present at the Lahore session, and said:
Iqbal is no more amongst us, but had he been alive he would have been happy to know that we did exactly what he wanted us to do.
Reported presidential speech in Iqbal Day meeting, Lahore, March 25, 1940
The Civil & Military Gazette, March 26, 1940
If I live to see ideal of a Muslim State being achieved in India and I were then offered to make a choice between the works of Iqbal and the rulership of the Muslim state, I would prefer the former.
This view was expressed by Mr. M. A. Jinnah presiding over the second session of the “Iqbal Day” held in the University Hall, Lahore.
Continuing, Mr. Jinnah said that in April 1936, he thought of transforming the Muslim League, which was then only an academical institution, into a parliament of the Muslims of India. From that time to the end of his life, he continued, Iqbal stood like a rock by him.
Iqbal, Mr. Jinnah said, was not only a great poet who had a permanent place in the history of the world’s best literature, he was a dynamic personality who, during his life time, made the greatest contribution towards rousing and developing of Muslim national consciousness. He compared Iqbal with great literary figures of England like Milton and Shelley.
Reported speech in Iqbal Day meeting, Lahore, March 3, 1941
The Civil & Military Gazette, March 4, 1941
Iqbal was described by various speakers not only as one of the greatest poets of the world, but also a political prophet who first visualised the ideal of a separate Muslim State in India, at the celebrations in connection with the Iqbal Day held in the University Hall, Lahore, under the auspices of the University Union.
Paying his tribute to the memory of the poet, Mr. M. A. Jinnah said:
The message of Iqbal has reached the farthest corners of the world. He was the greatest interpreter of Islam in modern times.
“I have had the privelege and opportunity,” he added, “of being associated with him. I have never found a more true and more loyal colleague than him.”
Mr. Jinnah exhorted Muslim youth to understand the spirit of Iqbal’s message. This, he said, would show them their goal. “Iqbal is goig to live for ever. The coming generations will look upon him as the greatest benefactors of Muslims
P26December 26, 1938
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Venezuela suma 302 nuevos casos de COVID-19 y cinco muertes - La Prensa de Lara
Nueva noticia sobre: Venezuela suma 302 nuevos casos de COVID-19 y cinco muertes
EFE | LA PRENSA DE LARA.- Venezuela sumó este viernes 302 nuevos casos confirmados de coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 y cinco muertes por esta pandemia que lleva 222 días en el país, informó el ministro de Comunicación Freddy Ñáñez. A través de Twitter, explicó que 248 de las nuevas infecciones se produjeron por transmisión comunitaria. Así mismo, se registraron 54 casos importados, como denomina el Gobierno a los venezolanos que retornan infectados al país, generalmente procedentes de la vecina Colombia, y que son retenidos durante varios días en las fronteras terrestres, bajo cuarentena obligatoria. Con estas nuevas infecciones, detalló el ministro, Venezuela ha contabilizado en 32 semanas 88.718 casos de coronavirus diagnosticados, de los cuales, aseguró, se han recuperado 82.899 personas, lo que deja solo 5.055 pacientes aún enfermos. Ñáñez informó también de que cinco venezolanos fallecieron en las últimas 24 horas por COVID-19, con estos decesos el total sube a 764. Por otra parte, el ministro pidió a los venezolanos que participen en el simulacro electoral de este domingo tomando las debidas medidas de bioseguridad. Venezuela celebrará este domingo un simulacro de cara a las elecciones legislativas del 6 de diciembre, en las que no participará el grueso de la oposición por considerarlas fraudulentas y que no serán reconocidas por la Organización de Estados Americanos (OEA) ni por la Unión Europea (UE). El manual de procedimiento para estos comicios establece que los electores deberán portar mascarilla durante todo el acto de votación y que los miembros de la Fuerza Armada Nacional Bolivariana (FANB) vigilarán que se cumpla el distanciamiento de al menos 150 centímetros entre cada una de las personas. El mandatario venezolano, Nicolás Maduro, invitó este viernes a participar tanto en el simulacro como en la cita de diciembre al señalar que votar "será un acto muy, muy seguro". Con información de: EFE
Astrologai įspėja apie įtemptą šeštadienį: turi patarimų kiekvienam - https://www.tv3.lt
Astrologai praneša, kad šeštadienį nemažai kam teks susidurti su sunkumais. Pateikiame spalio 24 dienos horoskopą 12 zodiako ženklų:AvinasBūkite ...
Avinas Bkite atids, kad nieko svarbaus nepraleistumte nei pro akis, nei pro ausis. Aplinkini pastabos ir patarimai, nuomon bus vertingi. Net jei jausits puikiai, niekur nerizikuokite. Tauras Pasyvumas bus naudingas, taip nesivelsite nereikalingus, pavojingus reikalus. Tai ne js laikas, stebkite, laukite. Nesitikkite naudos i to, k dabar darote, kas dabar siloma. Pasistenkite daugiau laiko praleisti namuose. Dvyniai Kiek apgaulingas metas ir vertinant jausmus, ir finansinius reikalus. Maiau adkite, atsargiau skolinkite ir nepasikliaukite iandien jus simyljusi asmen aistra. Vys Nuotaika gali sugesti dl niek, tad pasistenkite nepastebti gyvenimo smulkmen. Aikinkits savo silpnsias vietas, iekokite klaid ir nepasiduokite nerimui, jei igirsite k nors negero: galimas daiktas, kad kakas susipainiojo. Litas Kad ir kas vykt, nepalankus metas teisti, aikintis teisyb. Taiau problemos gresia ir dl sen, nevykdyt paad, negrint skol. Jei patiems nepavyks sutvarkyti svarbaus reikalo, iekokite pagalbinink. Mergel Gali tekti atsisakyti senos svajons. Neigyvenkite, nes tai laikina. Viltis bus apgaulinga, niekur, ypa finans srityje, nerizikuokite. Jei kas nors nesiseka, galite drsiai atidti kitoms dienoms. Svarstykls Laikas dirba js naudai, nereikia skubinti vyki. Vis dlto tai palankus metas plsti veikl. Bkite atsargesni su pinigais: galite per daug sumokti, patikti sukiumi. Nepasikliaukite kieno nors autoritetu. Skorpionas Dalykin skm priklausys ne tik nuo js profesionalumo. Ne pats geriausias metas kreiptis rmjus, iuo metu bus sunku sulaukti realios pagalbos. aulys Neskubinkite vyki. Partneriai, net draugai gali nesugebti jums padti (nors tikrai nors), tad bkite pasiruo atsarginiam jimui. Gali netiktai suirti planuotas sandoris, gali nepavykti sigyti vertingo daikto. Oiaragis Nesinervinkite, iandien negali viskas klostytis taip, kaip reikia. Jums is metas gali bti kiek sunkesnis, tad verta daugiau ilstis, apskritai likti namuose, jei tik aplinkybs tai leidia. Vandenis Bkite kuklesni, atsargesni: nieko nepraykite, nereikalaukite ir neprisiimkite joki rimt sipareigojim. Ginkite savo interesus diplomatikai. Kad nekilt tampa, ginai su partneriais, antrja puse, geriau neaptarinti ilaid. uvys Tikti skme ar kieno nors gerais norais pavojinga. Veikloje gali atsirasti nauj keblum per partnerius. Gali tekti sprsti finansines problemas, tik nelabai tikkite pasilymais lengvai usidirbti, praturtti, neidegs. altinis: www.vytautus.com
Men produce more Covid antibodies than women: Study - Daijiworld.com
Lisbon, Oct 24 (IANS): On average, men produce more Covid-19 antibodies than women, say Portuguese researchers, adding that, 90 per cent of the patients have detectable antibodies up to seven months post contracting the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The results, published in the European Journal of Immunology, also show that age is not a confounding factor in levels of antibodies produced, but disease severity is. "Our immune system recognizes the virus SARS-CoV-2 as harmful and produces antibodies in response to it, which helps to fight the virus," said study author Marc Veldhoen from Medicina Molecular Joao Lobo Antunes in Portugal. For the findings, the research team set up an in-house sensitive specific and versatile Covid-19 serology test. They started to monitor the antibody levels of over 300 Covid-19 hospital patients and healthcare workers, and over 200 post-Covid-19 volunteers. The results of this six months cross-sectional study show a classic pattern with a rapid increase of antibody levels within the first three weeks after Covid-19 symptoms and, as expected, a reduction to intermediate levels thereafter. "In this early response phase, on average men produce more antibodies than women, but levels equilibrate during the resolution phase and are similar between the sexes in the months after SARS-CoV-2 infection," Veldhoen said. In the acute phase of the immune response, the team observed higher antibody levels in patients with more severe disease. Also, the results show that age is not a confounding factor for the production of antibodies, as no significant differences were observed between age groups. Globally, 90 per cent of participants have detectable antibodies up to seven months post contracting Covid-19. Next, the research team evaluated the function of these antibodies, i.e. their neutralizing activity against the virus SARS-CoV-2. Also, the research team analysed the neutralizing capacity of the antibodies produced by the patients and volunteers. "Our work provides detailed information for the assays used, facilitating further and longitudinal analysis of protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2," Veldhoen said. Importantly, it highlights a continued level of circulating neutralising antibodies in most people with confirmed SARS-CoV-2.