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Interlinking Meta-Cognition with university's students academic achievements in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
This study aims at investigating the association between metacognitive awareness and student’s
academic achievements. The study undertakes the objectives and hypotheses on Low, Average and
High achievers in addition to assess the effects of metacognition awareness level on student’s
academic achievement. Through multistage stratified random sampling, data was collected from 160
undergraduate students, studying in Department of Mathematics & Department of English in Abdul
Wali Khan University, Khyber Pukhtunkhwa. Data was collected through Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) by schraw and Dennison(1994),CGPA of the students,self-developed objective
type subject test. Descriptive Statistics & statistical tests (Chi
square & Linear Regression) were
applied for data analyses. The results showed that metacognitive awareness had significant effect on
student’s academic achievement (CGPA) in Department of English whereas it was found to be
insignificant in Department of Mathematics. The study recommends an
introductory course on
Educational Psychology, which cater the metacognitive needs of the students. Moreover, research
studies are recommended in the subjects except English and Mathematics. The cultural difference of
the students, teachers, and locality
of the universities might be taken care of future perspective of
Learning is a continuous, rather complicated & cyclic process which plays important role in academic
development of learners (Dweck, 2002). Metacognition is a new emerging concept, which enable the
learner to be smart worker, not hard worker. Flavell in 1976 introduce a term meta-memory, which provided base for the introduction of metacognition in educational psychology(Baltaciand & Akpinar
2011; Kayashima et al., 2004;
Yore & Treagust, 2006). Metacognition is further elaborated
as know how about mental processes for learning & regulation of mental processes (Brown, 1987). It is the
capability through which students implicate cognitive processes in thinking & understanding about
and regulating their cognitive processes for the learning processes (Schraw & Dennison, 1994; Sungur & Senler, 2009). Meta-Cognition can be explained as the
knowledge about selection of appropriate strategies
for solving problems and fruitful learning. It actually gives information about when, how, why to use
any strategy for performing any learning task (Santrock, 2008).
It is generally assumed that students are not using metacognition consciously in their
academic as well as general tasks because metacognition is neither taught nor openly discussed
concept in the educational context in Pakistan. Metacognition enables the learner to be expert of their
own cognitive processes (evaluate, observe, monitor & regulate), which are important for learning. It
simply means that how, why and when they understand a concept as well as don‘t understand a
concept. According to research studies, significant association is found among Metacognition,
intelligence, and academic achievements (
Bağçeciet et al., 2011; Young & Fry, 2008; Dunning et al., 2003; Desoete & Roeyers, 2002; Kruger & Dunning, 1999;
Borkowski, Carr, & Pressely, 1987;
Sternberg, 1986a; Sternberg, 1984
). Meta-cognition is important
process for in
-depth involvement of
students in the learning process (Costa &Kellick, 2009). Highly strategic, Problem solver and good
predictors of own scores are those learners who are highly metacognitive aware (Artzt & Thomas, 1992; Garner & Alexander, 1989; Swanson, 1992). Researchers suggest metacognition as important
component for fruitful learning and high academic achievement
Taebee et al., 1998;
Awarded degrees after
completion and Cumulative
Grade Point Average (CGPA)
are mostly representative of
of individual student. In the current study, the Grade Point
Average (GPA) of individual stud
ents in previously completed semester‘s results were considered
their academic achievements.
The Govt. of Pakistan has focused on higher education and particularly
in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa over the last two decades, and to enhance the outcomes of higher education,
29 public sector universities have been instituted in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa as per mentioned phases: before year
2000, from 2000 to 2009, & from 2009 to 2018. A total of
nineteen (19) state-owned universities were established In the 3rd phase. Abdul Wali Khan
University Mardan (AWKUM) is the only university in 3rd phase, wh
ich mothered five universities in
Therefore, it is considered that the academic parameters in this university will be more Up to date than
others. Hence, the present study explains understanding of metacognition
among the Students in the chosen subjects of Mathematics and English. Metacognition in these two areas is most effective process for best learning (Benito, 2000; Ceylan, & Harputlu,
2015; Karbalaei, 2011;
Schoenfeld, 2009; Wenden, 1998
) but above cited reports were content limited mostly in the relevant
subjects. Our study co-relates
the general awareness of metacognition versus academic achievements of students & investigates its
effects on student‘s academic achievements, with special focus on Low, Average, and High achievers, in the selected teaching departments in AWKUM.For one, the
following objectives have been developed to answer the effects of Meta-Cognition on students‘
Objectives of the Study
To assess Meta-Cognitive Awareness
level of undergraduate students.
To investigate the effects of
level on students‘ academic
To find association between
level and students‘ gender.
To find association between
level and High, Average and Low
There is relationship between Meta
Cognitive Awareness level and academic achievements of
There is difference in Meta
Cognitive Awareness level
of female and male students.
There is difference in Meta
Cognitive Awareness level
of High, Average and Low achievers.
Learning is a merely natural process which take place throughout the life, as an individual expose to
the Various events in his/her life. It is also time dependent process that means more exposure led to more learning. However, it depends on individual capabilities which a person has, that how much
he/she can learn from a single event in life. The knowledge of
metacognition and its appropriate
application could be helpful in minimizing the individual‘s differential learning. The proper utilization
of metacognitive strategies by subject tutors and respective students could lead to noteworthy impact
academic achievements of students. Our data exhibited that the students‘ academic achievements were
in direct relation to their metacognitive awareness. The previous reports were found in accordance to
the outcomes of department of English in our study (Coutinho, 2007,
Dunning et.al., 2003; Kodak& Boyacá
, 2010; Ndidiamaka, 2010; Pintrich & De Groot, 1990; Sperling et.al., 2002; Taebee et.al.,
1998; Young, Fry, & Jan, 2008). Furthermore, the student‘s data in Department of Mathematics
produced insignificant effect on academic achievements (CGPA) of students who were metacognitively aware. The previous reports (Cubukcu
, 2009; Mousoulides & Philippou, 2005) were in accordance to our findings.
For the purpose of improvement in achieving desired academic goa
ls, we recommend the following
points based on our data analysis and discussing it in light of related literature via Metacognitive
Knowledge and Metacognitive Self-regulation.
Keeping in view the Metacognitive needs of students in both departments,
include an introductory course on Educational.
For improvement of Critical Thinking among the students in both departments, Faculty
members might also be offered with refresher courses.
Teachers may also be trained for enabling the students
on how to undertake self-questioning,
self-Assessment, self-regulation and thinking aloud during learning activities. If faculty in
both departments of AWKUM lack the skill in that, then they might arrange training sessions
for teaching faculty based on th
e recommended strategies of Metacognition Knowledge &
Being the key target for learning, the students need to be evaluated by their tutors according
to the parameters discussed in the present research. The students, failing to comply with
discussed parameters might be provided with appropriate proper
on the respective subject. The students
should be provided by the experts in the
University, if not available at the institution, then sessions migh
t be arranged on the monthly
basis for such students by inviting the experts from other Universities.
Our data exhibited that the students tends to apply metacognitive strategies primarily for learn
by rote instead of conceptual learning and comprehension.
The tutors and counselling experts
must focus on realizing the students that understanding the information is primary to
memorizing, otherwise, it might lead them to be conceptually weak in the subject and unable
for further learning.
Furthermore, the researchers need to evaluate the impact of application of metacognitive
strategies in the various subjects excluding Mathematics & English. Moreover, the cultural
diversity might be considered during future research regimes.
For detail study click on below link: https://doi.org/10.36902/sjesr-vol3-iss4-2020(239-246)
Awareness of Metacognition is one of new emerging and interesting concept in education psychology. It's introduction has a link with Flavel work and latter on giving the name metamemory to his new introduced concept.Its umbrella ⛱️ term covers two major components; Metacognitive knowledge and self-regulation which further have 8 minor components.
Many months have elapsed! And yeah alot of temps (time) has passed that we couldn't see lumiére (light) at the end of tunnel. We couldn't see a ray of espérer (hope). We often have had glimpse bitter memoirs. We couldn't have coup d' oeil (glance) a true and perfect union. I like to be a boring soul. Being boring is bit inquisitive. Because boredom is something which we could feel in high times. If you're a boring person then you might ask comme la craie et le fromage (like chalk and cheese ) queries alternatively. And its been cool and wacky. Sometimes it have been far-reaching but we might behave like contemplative. Asking queries about politique (politics) is normal but it depends on our interest which would require a profundity. Discussing political system of Pakistan would sometimes blow your mind. But being a high-five class citizen we have need of our elementary rights. It consists of روٹی , کپڑا , مکان , تبدیلی , ضروریات وغیرہ.
Being boredom is better. Sometimes we discuss different questions about education system of Pakistan. Personally I love to talk about education. It is something to be loved. It would enhance and would strengthen your mind. Cool. Our education system is not on fleek. But we and our government have to take major steps to improve our education-system. We know that we've political, economic and social challenges and we're facing it very bravely. Cool.
Our Nation Delimma
I never Published an Article but the following heart-wrenching Incident forced me to do so which took place yesterday at Rahim Yar Khan Pakistan, where a father hanged his son because he wouldn't stop crying due to hunger while his wife left him few days back when he failed to provide them food to survive due to the ongoing Coronavirus Pandemic. We said that a father is nothing without his son but what will be the condition of that father when he tied rope around a neck of his his own child knowing that he is going to kill him. I can just feel pain and anguish. Nothing else.. Why? Because we are equally responsible for all this.
How many students are studying in different universities of Pakistan but how many know that many employees working there are on daily wages?
I was member of my university hostel mess management committee for the last two years but just two months back i came to know that some waiters and dish washers are working there on daily wages for the last 10 to 15 years. Some of them have school going kids and living on rent. They are waiting for their monthly salary which is not more than 15,000pkr ($100).
When we the students busy praying for our Vacations they are worried about cut-off from their salaries due to those Vacations.
But unfortunately we'll do nothing neither our leaders will. We as a Nation Failed in this and we didn't have any effective strategies.
What will they do now when no one is there to give them job or provide them something to eat for their survival?
We as a Muslims also failed because we forget advices of our Heroes like Hazrat Umar ibn Al-Khattab said if a dog dies hungry on the banks of the River Euphrates, Umar will be responsible for dereliction of duty. Hence we and our Leaders are Responsible for all this.
ویڈیو پاکستان کی نہیں ہے.
یہ ویڈیو بنگلہ دیش کی ہے. جو اپریل/مئی 2020 کو سامنے آئی تھی. تب بنگلہ دیش کے علاقے فرید پور، دادپور بولمری میں ایک واقعہ سامنے آیا تھا جہاں دو فریقوں کے مابین لڑائی ہوئی اور اُس میں ایک شخص کو علاج کے دوران مار دیا گیا تھا. اِس ویڈیو کو غلط طریقے سے اُس کیس سے جوڑا گیا لیکن اِس ویڈیو کا اُس واقعے سے کوئی تعلق نہیں تھا.
حقیقت یہ ہے کہ یہ ویڈیو کسی کرونا وارڈ یا کرونا مریض کی نہیں ہے. اور نہ ہی اِس ویڈیو میں مریض کو مارا جا رہا ہے. بلکہ یہ ایک فرد(شاید بیٹا) کسی مریض کو زبردستی دوائی دینے کی کوشش کر رہا ہے. اگر ویڈیو کو بغور دیکھا جائے تو آپ کو علم ہوگا کہ کسی بھی پوائنٹ پر اِس شخص نے مریض کے گلے کو ہاتھ نہیں لگایا بلکہ ایک جگہ صاف واضح ہے کہ وہ مریض کو دوائی دینے کی کوشش کر رہا ہے.
نوٹ: یہ ویڈیو بنگلہ دیش سے نکل کر انڈیا میں وائرل ہوئی اور اب پاکستان میں گردش کر رہی ہے.
سوشل میڈیا پر ایک قیمتی گاڑی کو محض نمبر پلیٹ کی وجہ سے مولانا طارق جمیل کے ساتھ منسوب کر کے جھوٹا پراپیگنڈہ کیا گیا.
مولانا طارق جمیل نے تردید کر دی:
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