Abdul Moeez Mirza Gujrāt Pakistan
How Video Game Industry has Evolved over the Years
The video game industry is the economic sector involved in the development, marketing and monetization of video games. It encompasses dozens of job disciplines and its component parts employ thousands of people worldwide.
Prior to 1970’s there were no significant commercial aspects of the video game industry. The development of cathode ray-tube the core technology behind television created several of the first video game. In 1947 Thomas T Gold Smith Jr and Este Ray Mann filed a “patent for cathode ray tube amusement device”. Their game which uses a cathode ray tube hooked to an oscilloscope display challenges player to fire a gun at target.
One of the first known example is space war developed by Harvard and MIT employees Martin, Gratez, Steve Rusell and Wayne Wittanen. In 1971 the arcade game computer space was released. The following year Atari released the first commercial successful video game, Pong the original arcade version which sold over 19000. The same year saw the introduction of video games to the home market with the release of early video games console the Magnavox Odyssey.
The industry would eventually be revitalized by the release of Nintendo Entertainment system, which resulted in home console market being dominated by Japanese companies such as Nintendo Switch. The Nintendo entertainment system released in 1985 helped to revive the American video games industry after the video game crashed in 1983. The latter part of the decade saw the rise of Gameboy handled system. In 1990 the PlayStation was the most popular video game console of the fifth generation which saw the common adoption of CD media. The six generation Play Station 2 is the best-selling console of all time.
21st Century Development
In 2000 the video game industry is a judgment of development; profit still drives technological advancement which is then used by other industry sectors. Technologies such as Smartphones, virtual reality augmented reality are major drives for game hardware and game development. The 2010’s have seen a larger shift to casual and mobile gaming, in 2016 the mobile video game market is estimated to have taken $38 billion in revenues compared to $6 billion for the console market and $33 billion for personal computer gaming.
Sony CE is the most financially successful video game company in the world. Sony has built around the high successful PlayStation console. SCE was founded in Tokyo on November 16 1993.
Nintendo is an oldest company; they came into known in US as the Nintendo Entertainment System in 1985. After this came the Nintendo 64, the Gameboy all of the highly beloved game consoles, games and character that Nintendo is known for.
Electronic Art, often abbreviated EA, is also worth mentioning for its age. It is one of the oldest software companies that have remained a successful business. It was originally founded in 1982, and it is best known for its sport representation and in its yearly games like NFL, NBA and FIFA.
In 1999 BMG games was taken over by Take-Two Interactive and Rockstar game was born. The development company is most well-known for its Grand Theft Auto series. In 2014, Rockstar shipped more than 250 million copies of its games. Rockstar is also responsible for the popular and highly praised Red Dead series. While all of their game has a similar style and feel, they are all pretty unique from the main market of games.
Potomac Computer Systems was founded by Tim Sweeny in 1991 while he was a student at University of Maryland. Potomac turned into Epic Mega games, an attempt to make this one person studio seem larger. In 2012 the company moved to a new “game as a service” business model that has now become popular and announced a new game called Fortnite. It wasn’t until 2017 the Fortnite was made public. Fortnite’s battle royal mode quickly gained audience. Epic managed to break new ground by convincing Sony to allow cross play with Windows and Xbox and eventually all platforms.
Video game industry earns more than Movies and Music industry
The video game industry is growing so fast that some believe that it will reach $300 billion by 2025. With billions of dollar profit and over 2.5 billion games around the world. The new trends free- to play online video games such as Fortnite and Apex Legends. Since it is completely free to register and play these games some people think that the gaming industry isn’t making much money of them. The free to play game such as Fortnite still brings in billions of dollars in revenue each year. The video game industry generated worldwide sales of $19.8 billion, $20.8 billion in 1994 and estimated ton $30 billion in 1998. Consider the top blockbuster movie to date Avengers Endgame. When it premiered on April on 16 it raked in over US $858,373,000 during its opening weekend. It even surpassed last year’s Avengers Infinity war which generated US $678,865,428 in gross revenue. These films received so much attention and hype from the public; they failed to outperform the highest grossing entertainment launch in history. Grand Theft Auto V earned US $1 billion in just over three days in 2013 when it was released.
Abdul Moeez Mirza
Pakistan top’s as Tourist Destination
A country with diverse cultures and natural beauty, Pakistan is a heaven for any tourist. From snowcapped peaks and frozen lakes to serene valleys and beautiful shores, interspersed with the ruins of ancient civilizations and Mughal monuments, Pakistan is full of breathtaking views.
Moreover, the religious sites of Hindus and Sikhs are a source of attraction for pilgrims. Religious tourism plays a vital part in boosting economic activities in the country. Old Hindu and Sikh Temples, mainly the shrine of Guru Nanak, are visited by thousands. With the opening of the Kartarpur Corridor, even more religious tourists will arrive in Pakistan.
In addition to all this, the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is another opportunity Pakistan should be looking to make most out of in order to increase its tourism. Under CPEC, numerous infrastructure and power projects are being developed in the country, which will offer more facilities to travelers. In addition, the Chinese spend a great share of their earnings on sightseeing and easier travel to Pakistan will encourage them to visit the country and avail themselves of its natural beauty.
Pakistan has clear attractions for locals and foreigners alike. But terrorism and a lack of facilities had hamstrung tourism in Pakistan in the past. Previous governments did not bother much boosting this potential industry. They spent little effort to highlight the positive image of the country and neglected the essential steps needed to enhance the tourism sector. Foreigners hesitated to visit Pakistan, considering it a war-stricken, intolerant, and ultraconservative country.
But, recently, there has been a laudable improvement in the tourism industry. Enhanced security conditions are perhaps the key reason for ever-increasing numbers of tourists.
Another important development is a new visa policy, which offers e-visas and visa on arrival to tourists. Pakistan has also abolished the requirement for No-Objection Certificates (NOCs) to visit certain parts of the country. Besides this, the government is also converting its rest houses and palatial buildings to hotels, offering more charming accommodations to visitors. The Tourism Coordination Board is yet another measure taken to capitalize on the potential of Pakistan’s tourism sector and increase the inflow of wealth in the country.
Likewise, the growing hospitality industry of Pakistan is building up the trust of sightseers. International hotel chains are expanding their services and the entrepreneurs are launching innovative ways to serve guests.
Alongside these developments, international travel bloggers and vloggers are visiting the country and showing the true nature of Pakistan and the hospitality of its people. The revival of sports in Pakistan is also helping to clear the security concerns.
These developments have helped to present a softer image of the country. The high-profile royal visit by the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge contributed to this trend.
As a result of all these factors, some of the world’s most reputable magazines and societies are encouraging people to tour Pakistan. Forbes considered Pakisytan to be “one of the coolest places to go” in 2019. In 2017, the British Backpacker Society, in ranking Pakistan as its best adventure travel destination, described it as “one of the friendliest countries on earth, with mountain scenery that is beyond anyone’s wildest imagination.”
The Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf government's efforts to promote tourism promotion have started yielding results as Traveller by Condè Nast, one of the world's best travel portals, has listed Pakistan as one of the top tourist destinations for 2020. Though more tourists are visiting Pakistan now, still there’s a long way to go.
The number of extremely tall mountains in the region — “more than China and Nepal combined”. Even the drive north on the Karakoram Highway wins praise. The opportunity to mingle with the Kalash people was also mentioned.
Southern parts of the country did not earn much praise, save for Lahore and, indirectly, other cities and towns in Punjab and K-P featuring “Mughal-era architectural masterpieces. While many a Karachiite would be deeply offended that their city did not even get a mention, it is more surprising that areas such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, and many other locations with historical value were overlooked. It was probably space restrictions for the article. Still, it would be best if our tourism managers at federal and provincial levels look into what can be done to encourage tourism in such places and eco-tourism elsewhere. The piece reserves special praise for the Gilgit-Baltistan and the north in general while taking note of.
Even though tourism in Pakistan is on the rise, there are several remaining concerns for vacationers that need to be addressed by the government. A better international portrayal of Pakistan is also needed to help its nascent tourism industry.
Let us hope that the positive steps in this regard will continue, governmental efforts will bear sweet fruits, and Pakistan will become the dream destination of every nature-lover.
Abdul Moeez Mirza
The Kashmir Issue
The word Kashmir was derived from the ancient Sanskrit language was referred to as Kasmira. A valley between the great Himalayan range and Pir Panjal mountain range, Kashmir is a place of beautiful simplicity and pristine natural beauty. Kashmir is painted with a unique culture that keeps you intrigued throughout the journey, from Srinagar to Somagar and Gulmarg to Pahalgam. Kashmir has a variety of terrains ranging from lakes, snow-capped mountains, and coniferous kissed hills to glaciers fed rivers. Kashmir is covered with wild untouched terrain and on others, there are fields of saffron and orchards of apples awaiting their full bloom. There are a variety of flowers, some people compare Kashmir with Switzerland.
The Kashmir issue is a territorial conflict primarily between India and Pakistan and China as the third-party role over the Kashmir region. The conflict started after the partition of India in 1947 as both India and Pakistan claimed the entire of the former princely state of Jammu Kashmir with Pakistan recognizing Chinese sovereignty over the Trans Karakoram tract and Aksai Chin since 1963. The region escalated into three wars between India, Pakistan and several other armed skirmishes. India controls 55% of land area of the region that includes Jammu, Kashmir valley, most of Ladakh, the Siachen glacier and 70% of its population. Pakistan controls 30% of the area includes Azad Kashmir and Gilgit Baltistan while China controls the remaining 15% of the land area that includes the Aksai Chin region, the mostly uninhabited Tran-Karakoram track and Demchok sector.
From 1846 to 1947 partition of India Kashmir was ruled by Mahajras of Ghulab Singh Dogra dynasty as a princely state under the British Paramountcy. According to the 1941 census, the state’s population was 77 percent Muslims, 20 percent Hindus and 3% others Sikhs and Buddhist. The princely rule was an overwhelming a Hindu-dominated state. According to 1947 India Independence Act states were left to choose whether to join India or Pakistan or to remain independent. Jammu and Kashmir, the largest of princely state had a predominantly Muslim population ruled by Hindu Maharaja Hari Singh. He decided to stay independent because he expected that the state’s Muslim will be unhappy with accession to India and the Hindus and Sikhs would become vulnerable if he joined Pakistan. Pakistan made various efforts to persuade the Maharaja of Kashmir to join Pakistan.
The Indo-Pakistan war 1948
Rebel forces from the western districts of the state and Pakistan Pakhtoon tribesmen made rapid advance into the Baramulla sector in the Kashmir valley, National conference volunteers worked with the Indian Army to drive out the raiders. The Pakistan army made available arms, ammunition and supplies to rebel forces who were dubbed the “Azad Army''. Pakistani army officers were conveniently on leave and the former officers of the Indian national Army were recruited to command the forces. In May 1948, Pakistan army officially entered the conflict to defend the Pakistan border .Prime Minister Liaquat Ali khan and to refer the dispute to The United Nations under the article of 35 of the UN charter, which allow the member states to bring Security Council attention way to endanger the maintenance of International peace. On 21 April 1948 UN Security Council passed resolution 47. The measure called for an immediate cease-fire and called on the Government of Pakistan to secure the withdrawal from the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
The Indo-Pakistan war 1965
On 1 September, Pakistan launched an attack across the Cease Fire Line, targeting Akhnoor in an effort to cut Indian communications into Kashmir. In response, India broadened the war by launching an attack on Pakistani Punjab across the international border. The war lasted until 23 September, ending in a stalemate. Following the Tashkent Agreement, both the sides withdrew to their pre-conflict positions, and agreed not to interfere in each other's internal affairs.
The Indo-Pakistan war of 1971 led to loss for Pakistan of a military and surrender in East Pakistan. Bangladesh was created as a separate state with India’s support and India emerged as a clear regional power in South Asia. Accordingly, the Simla Agreement was formulated and signed by the two countries whereby the countries resolved to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations and to maintain the sanctity of line of control. It was decided that the negotiations will be made by both sides not by the UN.
The 1999 Kargil Conflict
In mid-1999 alleged instruments and Pakistani soldiers from Pakistan Kashmir infiltrated Jammu and Kashmir. During the winter season, Indian forces regularly move down to lower altitudes to serve climatic conditions makes it almost impossible for them to guard the high peaks near the line of control. This results in a large-scale conflict between India and Pakistan armies. Fears of Kargil turning into a nuclear war provoked the United States President Bill Clinton to pressure Pakistan to retreat. The Pakistan army withdraws their remaining troops from the area; ending the conflict India regains control of Kargil peaks.
21st Century developments
India continues to assert its sovereignty or rights over the entire region of Kashmir, while Pakistan maintains that it is disputed territory. Pakistan argues that the status cannot be considered as a solution and further insists on a UN sponsor Plebiscite. In 2005 General Musharraf sought to resolve the Kashmir issue through the Chenab Formula road map. The Chenab formula assigns Ladakh to India, Gilgit-Baltistan to Pakistan, proposes a plebiscite in the Kashmir valley and splits Jammu into two halves.
According to the government of India Home ministry 2008 was the year with the lowest civilian casualties in 20 years with 89 deaths compared to a high of 1413 in 1996. In 2009 protest started over the alleged rape and murder of two young women in Shopian in South Kashmir. Suspicion pointed towards the police as predators. A judicial inquiry by a retired high court official confirmed but a CBI inquiry reversed their conclusion. The 2010 Kashmir unrest was a series of protest in the Muslim majority Kashmir valley in Jammu and Kashmir which started in June 2010. The protest involved the “Quit Jammu And Kashmir Movement”.
The attack by four militants on an Indian army base on 18 September 2016 also known as the 2016 Uri attack resulted in the death of 19 soldiers as well as the militants themselves. Although no one claimed the responsibility for the attack, the Indian authorities suspected the involvement of Jaish-e-Mohammad militant group. Indians blamed that Pakistan was involved, the Indian Motion Picture Producers Association decided to suspend work with Pakistan. The Pakistani government “denied any role in cross border terrorism and called on the United Nation and the International community to investigate atrocities it alleged have been committed by security forces in an Indian ruled Kashmir.
Article 370 India gaining control over Kashmir
Article 370 of the Indian Constitution gave special status to Jammu and Kashmir, it is the region located in the northern part of Indian Subcontinent. From 1954 to 2019 India administered a large region of Kashmir which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan and China since 1947. On 5 August 2019, the government of India issued a constitutional order superseding the 1954 order, and making all provisions of the Indian constitution applicable to Jammu and Kashmir based on the resolution passed in both houses of India’s parliament with 2/3 majority. After this the people in Kashmir started protesting in response to stop this large scale protest the Indian government imposed lockdown till now it has been 11 months to the lockdown. During lockdown more than thousands of people have lost their lives and women are brutally raped. Recently the Indian soldiers in front of a three year old boy killed his grandfather.
Pakistan maintains that Kashmir is the "jugular vein of Pakistan" and a currently disputed territory whose final status must be determined by the people of Kashmir. Pakistan's claims to the disputed region are based on the rejection of Indian claims to Kashmir, namely the Instrument of Accession. Pakistan insists that the Maharaja was not a popular leader, and was regarded as a tyrant by most Kashmiris. Pakistan maintains that the Maharaja used brute force to suppress the population.
Pakistan claims that Indian forces were in Kashmir before the Instrument of Accession was signed with India, and that therefore Indian troops were in Kashmir in violation of the Standstill Agreement, which was designed to maintain the status quo in Kashmir (although India was not signatory to the Agreement, which was signed between Pakistan and the Hindu ruler of Jammu and Kashmir).
India has officially stated that it believes Kashmir to be an integral part of India, though the then Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh, stated after the 2010 Kashmir Unrest that his government was willing to grant autonomy to the region within the purview of Indian constitution if there was consensus among political parties on this issue.
Abdul Moeez Mirza
The Current situation of Pakistan
The corona virus pandemic has caused huge destruction worldwide more than a million of people has lost their lives and the virus has also made a worst impact on the economy. When the virus started spreading the Pakistani government had started taking steps at the airports such as thermal scanning. The first case of corona virus was reported on 26 February, the patient had a recent travel history from Iran. On 13 of March in a meeting it was decided to close all the educational institutes, banquet halls and a ban was imposed on all kinds of functional gatherings . On 18 March cases were reported in all the provinces of Pakistan. On 24 of March Sindh and Balochistan provincial government imposed lockdown in there provinces. The nationwide lockdown was declare on 1 April by the order of the PM Imran Khan. The federal government had predicted that if people didn't follow the precautionary measures the cases will reach 50,000 by the end of May but it reached 13,000. As Pakistan's one-fourth population consist of daily wagers so it seems difficult to keep the lockdown for long time so the lockdown was lifted on 9 May. After this decision, the corona virus grew rapidly in Pakistan people violated the strict SOPs which were provided by the government and all the shopping malls and bazaars were open due to Eid-ul-Fitr. On Eid people met each other and didn't follow the precautionary measures so by the 8 of June corona virus cases in Pakistan crossed "one hundred thousand". The corona virus cases grew day by day as the situation seemed uncontrollable so on 18 June PM Imran Khan announced that there will be smart lockdown in all Pakistan and those areas which are highly affected will be completely lockdown. The strategy of smart lockdown has produced positive results there has been a shortage in the number of cases and deaths till now there are two hundred and twenty-eight thousands confirmed cases in Pakistan and more than forty-seven hundred people have lost their lives. Not only the government should play its role it is the duty of every single citizen to play its own role by following the strict SOPs.
Political disputes in PTI(Pakistan-Tehreek-Insaaf)
In August 2020 the 2 years of PTI will be completed. From the very start PM Imran Khan had been making changes in his cabinet. In a recent interview Fawad Chaudhry said that there had been "internal fighting" between Jehangir Tareem, Shah Mahmood Qureshi and Asad Umar ever since PTI came into the office and has weaken the party, the political class got ruled out and the space was filled by bureaucrats those who did not belong to the party, through this PM Imran Khan was unable to deliver as he wished too. Fawad Chaudhry said that Imran khan is the symbolic reason due to which all party members are united, according to him the one who gave the idea to PM Imran khan to choose inexperienced people in his team has weaken Imran khan's team.
After Fawad Chaudhrys' interview in the next cabinet meeting both ministers Asad Umar and Shah Mahmood Qureshi asked for the explanation of the statements which were against them. In the response one of the minster Faisal Vawda said that a minister is not allowed to give any explanation to any other minster, we are only allowed to give the explanation to the Prime Minster. Faisal Vawda also said to PM Imran Khan that some of your team members are planning against you. In response PM Imran Khan said that I'm aware of those who are planning against me.
Asad Umar and Shah Mahmood Qureshi are those who are close to PM Imran Khan and those who have forced Imran khan to start the inquiry of Sugar Scandal against Jehangir Tareem to end his influence in PTI. As Jehangir Tareem can no longer can be any minister but he still give his view on decision.
Parvez Khattak currently the defense minister of Pakistan was previously the Chief Minister of KPK, he made many new policies which produced good results and in the next election PTI gain more votes than the previous election in the province. There had been some misunderstandings between Imran Khan and Parvez Khattak due to which Parvez Khattak was not able to become the CM of KPK once again. He is given importance only when negotiations are to be made with opposition.
It all depends upon the Prime minister that how he works with his cabinet. The downfall of any government do not come due to the mistakes of the ministers but it comes due to the wrong decisions taken by the Prime Minister.
The PIA Airbus A-320 aircraft, with 99 people on board, crashed in the model colony near Jinnah International Airport in Karachi on May 22 , killing 97 people. Two passengers miraculously survived.
The Senate Committee has recommended that the FIA office in Lahore should examine if the engineering branch of the PIA at Lahore was being maintained as per the given international standards and how many times the small components of the aircraft involved in the accident had been made/repaired from local companies/workshops.
The Committee said it was felt that the maintenance system of aircraft had been deteriorating day by day and becoming irresponsible which was visibly noted over the past few tragic incidents.
"All aircraft of PIA should be retested, overhauled and the maintenance must be done by PIA and the certificates with responsibility be given before bringing the aircraft on the runway to avoid such incidents in future, following internationally acknowledged air safety rules to make Pakistani airspace safest for flying," it said.
Recently the minister of aviation revealed that 282 out of 800 pilots are having fake license. This controversy gain a global attention after the federal minster for aviation Ghulam Sarwar Kahn IN the national assembly declared that 150 pilots are having fake license. The European Aviation safety strategy(ESSA) has ban PIA flights landing in Europe for 6 months. In the recent press conference the ministered cleared that 28 pilots are carrying fake license
However these crisis can be successful for Pakistan as from now onwards the well trained pilots will be flying the planes.
Written by: Abdul Moeez Mirza.