All publications of Sikandar Hayat . لاھور , Pākistān
Dr. Muhammad Yassen
Department of agriculture, University of Sargodha .
Agriculture Extension Management
Global agriculture extension management faces a challenge to become more efficient and responsible. Review the development of agriculture extension system over the last two decades. According to current context many major drawbacks have been identified in agriculture extension system such as client dissatisfaction, big performance gap, decrease in investment in expansion and slow adjustment in response to change roles. System is organized by crop and livestock research and development institute for improvement in the commodity sector along with the authorities of the concerned department for better production of agriculture. This system involves training and visiting system by introducing devolution and fragmentation, agriculture extension approach and continuing to develop. The attempt to integrate various extension services dealing with food production has made limit progress. The expansion intervention in cyber agriculture has been gradually introduced. Information and communication technologies (ICT) has faced limitation such as limited access by the state sector in expanding agriculture and lack of support from senior officials. So reforms are specially proposed to extend agriculture.
• Communication process
• Agriculture management organization
• Functional and services
• National agriculture research system
• Advantage and Disadvantage
Agriculture and allied center play a vital role in the economy and containing to be critical sector providing livelihood for all two/third of the world force. Due to commercialization and the increasing complex city of agricultural technology, there is a great deep for reorientation and modernization of the agriculture extension system. There is need to improve capacity to present extension professional on countries bases to face the ever growing challenges in agriculture in to response to the national institute of agriculture extension management. Popularly known as manage which established in 1987 at Hyderabad. Manage an ISO organization is located in Hyderabad in a spreading green campus of 47 acre in Rajindernagr at Hyderabad. There institute is situated in close proximately to other reputed agriculture institute. The esthetically land escaped campus with strolling long colorful ambles and captivating Provence create a unique ambles of crudity for persuade of education and professional growth. Manage has a mended to develop linkage between Sominant state regional, national and international institution and concern with agriculture extension management and also agriculture development in economic with its mended.
• Management education
• Policy advocacy
• Information and documentation service
In the agriculture extension, farmer has new scientific science to improve agriculture production. These days is a very wide range of communication and learning activities for rural people by education from different discipline including agriculture and agriculture marketing etc. Extension practitioner can be found throughout the world usually working for government agencies. They are represented by several professional organization and network. In developing countries agriculture extension management agencies like international development organization like World Bank and United Nation food and agriculture organization.
• The term extension has been used to cover widely different communication system that can be used to improve agriculture production. Particle problems help to explain the type of expansion; how communication takes place and why it takes place.
• Within and outside the agriculture extension system among different actors is concern but has emerged to participate in the process of intensive communication in the separate communication of agriculture sector. This field refers to the participatory extension model the roots of public relations is a form of two-way harmonious communication based on mutual respect understanding and influence between an organization.
Agriculture is the dominant sector of Pakistan economy with 21% contribution in total GDP and contract of 45% total labor force contract in this sector. Agriculture contribute sustainability to the acceleration of economic growth and to improving food security in reducing poverty in rural areas. Agriculture extension is one of the main components of agriculture knowledge and information system research and other two components of education being, many expansion reforms globally from a focus on rural development as an essential element of poverty reduction. The decision made by the millions of rural households on various aspects of crop production, soil fertility and resources management depends on the knowledge and information available to them.
AGRICULTURE MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION
Agriculture is the provincial dictate according to the constitution of Pakistan and range of provincial level organization exist even after decentralization of 2001.
AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT IN PUNJAB
• Director General Agriculture (Extension adaptive research)
• Director General Agriculture (field)
• Director General Agriculture (research)
• Director General Agriculture (pest warning and QCT)
• Director General Agriculture (water management)
• Special Secretary (agriculture marketing)
AGRICULTURE EXTENSION AND ADAPTIVES RESEARCH IN PUNJAB.
• Agriculture production is very complex system. They rely on inter-related components the development of such appropriate productive technology is ultimately up to consumer and the formulation of farmer friendly agriculture policies improved.
• The spread of appropriate technology is of vital importance to the farmer its benefit is to be derived from technological development.
• Apart from this, the difference between research and former adoption requires proper correction by integrating the research.
FUNCTION AND SERVICES
Two types of function
• Provincial level
• District level
• Fixing of area and production target
• Monitoring of the district level activities
• Implementation of production technologies
• Implementation of approved project
• Implementation of agriculture laws
• Monitoring of agriculture inputs availability
• Pre-service and in-service training
• Village level farmer training program Production technology development
• Supply of seed kits
NATIONAL AGRICULTURE RESEARCH SYSTEM
The national agriculture research system institutional framework has implemented agricultural research and has also cover the private sector as well as the public sector in promoting vertical and horizontal linkage with other national regional and international organizations which can prove to improve production.
OBJECTIVES OF NARS
• Shift the production of agriculture in a modern-science based market-oriented agriculture that is capable of sustaining maximum efficiency profitability and growth in the agriculture sector.
• Promote agriculture and related industry for the purpose of contributing to the improvement of people’s standard of living and livelihood with reference to environment protection..
SUB SYSTEM OF NARS
• Public research institute
• Private companies sector
• Farmer organization
• Civil society organization
• Advisory service organization
• The presentation is sub divided in to the following three sections
• A very brief overview has been given of the importance of studies in the economic process of agriculture and management of agriculture during the last seventy years.
• The world and South Africa identify a wide range of patterns of change and mention the administrative impact of these changes.
• Management thinking has identified some innovation and discussed some implication foe agriculture management practices in South Africa.
Agriculture management is defined here as a process of planning decision making stimulated collaboration and control in agriculture with specific objective and the national and farm levels. This concept has accepted the administrative process at the national industrial and farm level. CHALLENGES
Some challenges are available
GLOBALIZATION IN AGRICULTURE MANGEMENT
Globalization refers to increase in financial transaction input output information and science movement in wide geographical areas. The benefit derived from globalization increases net income in many places and decrease the level of poverty and many there by increases the level of food security in agriculture management.
Long term climate change whether caused by natural variation or as a result of human activity and is now considered to be the most prominent.
WAY OF FARMER CAN FIGHT CLIMATE CHANGE
• Renewable energy
• Organic practices
• Increase soil health
• Keeping agriculture green
• Pasture based livestock management
• Protecting farm land
LIBERALIZATION IN AGRICULTURE MANAGEMENT
After realizing the failure of highly secure trade policies in the provision of economic prosperity, many developing countries in Asia are pursuing policies to liberalize trade in their domestic and trade market. Asian countries including Pakistan, India and other also started to liberalize their trade and are now in the process of gradually opening up their economic for international business community.
DIVERSIFICATION OF AGRICULTURE MANAGEMENT
Diversity in the agriculture context can be regarding a resourcing other products and non-agriculture activities such as restaurants and shops, especially in rich countries.
PARADIGMS OF AGRICULTURE XTENSION
Any particular extension system can be described in term of both how communication takes place and why it takes place. It is not that the paternalistic system are always persuasive nor is it a matter that participatory plans are essentially educational.
Four paradigms of agriculture extension are following;
Technology transfer (persuasive + paternalistic)
Technology transfer involves an advanced approach that provides specific recommendation to the farmer about the method they should adopt.
Advisory work (persuasive + participatory6)
It could be easier today where government organization or private consulting companies respond to farmer enquiries with technical prescription. It also takes the form of a project managed by donor agencies and NGOs that use a participatory approach to promote technologies defalt packages.
Human resources (educational + paternalistic)
Above and below are employed in teaching method but student are expected to make their own decision on how to utilize the knowledge they have acquired.
Facilitation for empowerment (educational + participatory)
This method includes experimental education and farmer to farmer exchange. The most popular examples in Asia are projects that use farmer field school (FFS) or participatory technology development (PTD).
ADVANTAGE OF AGRICULTURE EXTENSION MANAGEMENT
Important information about agriculture plays an important role in enhancing the productivity of agriculture which is capable of improving rural livelihood and promoting agriculture as a poor economic growth engine.
DISADVANTAGES OF AGRICULTURE EXTENSION MANAGEMENT
Its lakes two way communication, Communication about farmer problem, need and interest tends not to flow up through the extension channels when this approach is used. The farming system or current needs of their clientele
SERVICES OF AGRICULTURE EXTENSION
Services of agriculture extension are divided into three steps:
• Technology transfer
The traditional mode of transmission of knowledge and information of advice
To be used by the advice regarding specific problem facing the farmer of the cadre of the expert.
The purpose of this model is to help farmers define their problems and develop their own solution.
PRINCIPLE APPLICATION OF AGRICULTURE EXTENSION MANAGEMENT
The bilateral link between extension and farmer in research is basic to practice voice extension and should be the main principal of extension activity. Extension service agents within rural areas should work together with other institution which proved necessary services to farmer and their families.
Some principal are following
• Principal of participation
• Principal of Leadership
• Principal of cooperation
• Principal of evaluation
• Principal of satisfaction
• Principal of adaptability
• Principal of grass roots organizations
PRINCIPAL OF PARTICIPATION
According to the field of joint action (improving the participation of farmer organization in decision making) our aim is to describe participation in agriculture extension system as joint decision making and process of agriculture extension services customer and agents.
PRINCIPAL OF LEADERSHIP
An individual under leadership influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. Extension leadership in agriculture has important strategic importance as it deals with developing group of farmer in the community.
PRINCIPAL OF COOPERATION
Refer to an organization in which each member farmer individually owns his land but farming is done jointly. The profits are distributed among the members farmers in proportion to the land they own.
PRINCIPAL OF EVALUATION
Evaluation of agriculture extension program refers to the systematic collection of information about the activities, characteristics and outcomes of a program in order to make a decision about the program.
PRINCIPAL OF SATISFACTION
Satisfaction is the most important factor for developing and sustaining organizational priorities and practice. The purpose of such service should be to increase rewards from farming to maintain participation in the satisfaction of farmers which affects the sustainability of extension program.
PRINCIPAL OF ADAPTABILITY
Adaptations as an adjustment to the natural or human system in response to the stimulation or effects of an actual or projected climate that moderate the loss of exploit the beneficial apart.
PRINCIPAL OF GRASS ROOTS ORGANIZATION
The task of expansion is to transfer and nurture pool of knowledge with in rural industry. Thus extension embraces all those who contribute knowledge are transfer it to farmers. Grass root organization have significant and tremendous role to play in modern extension operation that is farmer centered.
METHOD OF AGRICULTURE EXTENSION MANAGEMENT
The method of agriculture extension are divided in to two types
• Individual method
• Group method
The individual method in which the agent deal with farmer on a one-to-one basic
The group method in which the agent bring the farmer together to undertake his extension work
OBJECTIVE OF AGRICULTURE EXTENSION
The objective of extension is to change farmer outlook toward their difficulties….. This involves helping farmer to improve the productivity of their agriculture and also developing their abilities to direct their on future development.
Pilot project in agriculture extension management can be difficult to generalize from where the new extension strategy has been tested as a result of which the strategy will be used when it is widely. We say should and will not happen because many consumer probably do not realize that they benefit from better agriculture extension strategies. That is one reason why it is politically difficult to allocate sufficient budget in extension service. The principal of agriculture extension are essential in promoting extension program as it identifies the main issue which deal with complete implementation an initiate in extension environment. The principal of expansion are predominant for both expansion and communities in which the extension program is to be implemented.
• http://www.ext.agripunjab.gov.pk/ https://ag4impact.org/socio-economic-capitat/agriculture-extension
• Extension practice in agriculture extension (1987) proof Dr. Deji et all.
• Agriculture extension service in Nigeria (2014) proof Timromiro, Axxin, et all
• FAO (2002) World agriculture: toward 2015/2030 Rome, FAO.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF VEGETABLE CROPS IN PAKISTAN THEIR MAIN ISSUES AND FUTURE STRATEGIES.
Dr. Muhammad Yaseen
Department of Agricultural Extension, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Lahore-Khushab bypass road Sargodha
Vegetable crops are very important due to their higher yield potential, higher return and high nutritional value, suitability for small land holding farmers and better employment opportunities. In spite of population increase, land degradation and water scarcity, the world has to substantially increase food production in the years to come.
Even at present, the number of people in the world who are chronically undernourished exceeds 750 million. Asia particularly, must step up food production because this is the region with the highest increase in population. More than 35 kinds of vegetables are grown in numerous eco-systems in Pakistan from the dry zone to the wet zone, low elevation to high elevation, rain fed to irrigated and low input to very high input systems such as plastic houses. Although vegetables are a very important in Pakistan diet providing proteins, minerals and vitamins required for human nutrition, the daily per capita intake is low, being about 100 grams compared to the recommended consumption of about 285 grams.
At present the total cropped area of the country is 22.94 million ha. Out of this 55% is under food crops, 19% under cash crops and 6% under pulses. Vegetables constitute an integral component of the cropping pattern but the increasing pressure on food and cash crops has limited the area under vegetables to about 0.53 million ha, which is 2.3% of the total cropped area. They fit well in most farming systems due to shorter maturity period. However, in the past, development efforts in agriculture sector were primarily focused on production and development of cereal crops; in spite of the fact the vegetables provide maximum output per unit area.
Punjab claims largest area, which is more than 51.67% of the total area followed by Sindh (26.17 %), Balochistan (11.30 %) and KPK (10.86 %). Maximum area is grown under potatoes (109705 ha) of which about 88.50% occurs in Punjab. Next to potato is onion (108931 ha) of which 46.16% is cultivated in Sindh and 24.78% in Punjab. Chilies commanding an area of 55791 hectares are at the third position of which 84.09 % is cultivated in Sindh.
The major share in the production of vegetables including potato and condiments (onion, chilies, turmeric, garlic and coriander) is of Punjab (63.11%) followed by Sindh (13.92 %), Balochistan (12.31 %) and KPK (10.66 %). Punjab province has comparatively high shares both in area and production. The contribution of other provinces is significant in making the vegetables available in the market during lean period due to different production seasons.
Crop yield in Pakistan are low and a substantial gap exists between the potential yields and the yields at the farm level. Production can be increased either by bringing more area under crops or by increasing productivity per hectare.
By adopting suitable cultural methods and controlling the pests and diseases, it is possible to increase the per hectare production considerably. The factors responsible for low yield are:
o Lack of quality seed of high yielding varieties
o Narrow choice of cultivars
o High incidence of pests and diseases
o Enormous weed infestations
o Poor plant densities
o Low use of fertilizers
Vegetable seeds in Pakistan are produced by vegetable research stations, Punjab seed corporation and private enterprises but their share is very limited (7-15%). Most of the vegetable seed is imported from other countries. These include both open pollinated varieties and hybrids. Seed requirement and its availability are presented in which clearly indicates that up 88% of seed is being imported annually.
Crop Production Problems
o Chilies >Phytophthora root rot, viruses, aflatoxin
o Onion > Purple blotch, cultivar adaptability, weed infestation
o Tomato > Early blight, viruses, fruit borer, heat tolerance, orobanche, nematodes, blossom end rot
o Peas > Powdery mildew, root rot, leaf miner, pod borer
o Cabbage > Head cracking
o Okra > Pod borer, yellow vein mosaic virus, jassids
o Cauliflower > Heat tolerance
o Cucumber > Powdery mildew, downy mildew, cucumber mosaic virus
o Brinjal > Shoot and Fruit borer
o Future Directions
Vegetables will become increasingly important in supplementing the food and nutritional needs of the people. Unless the productivity of the land is substantially increased there will be a shortfall in vegetables to meet domestic requirements. As employment opportunities for the family unit increase, there may be an increased demand for processed vegetables in the coming years. Future strategies in vegetable production must also consider increasing demand for export. This has to be supplemented through crop improvement and better management practices that can increase the productive capacity of the limited land and water resources, to meet domestic requirements and the potential increases in exports.
An increasing awareness and sensitivity to environmental pollution and health hazards due to the excessive use to pesticides has stimulated integrated pest management methods in vegetable production which will be vigorously pursued.
Most significantly, increasing productivity will not be rewarding unless technologies are speedily developed for processing of vegetables, and the establishment of industries at the village level to generate employment and increase incomes of the rural people. Every endeavor is therefore, being made to initiate research to develop simple agro-based industries that can be established in farming communities.
Policy of vegetable research has to be focused on solving chronic production problems through development of improved disease and pest resistant, short-duration and widely adaptable varieties to fit into various cropping systems in different agro ecological situations, and development of appropriate agro techniques and plant protection measures. Seed technology research and standardization of the technology for export- oriented production has to be given special attention. There is a need for improving and strengthening the seed-producing agencies for better quality seed production and supply.
TOPIC: Present Position of Agriculture
It is obvious that the agriculture sector is important for an economy to develop. All the developing countries made their way from the agricultural sector’s development and progress. This sector is the backbone of many developing countries and GDP of a country is affected by agriculture very much. The most widely utilized staple food in the world is wheat. Rice stands second in the world after wheat in area and production. Rice is staple food for a huge percentage of population around the world after wheat.
In addition to above-mentioned major crops, there is a huge number of staple food crops and fodder producing crops growing around the world but these are all on a verge of decline in growth due to multiple factors including pests, animal attacks, poor gene quality and spread of plant diseases. To eliminate all these factors modern agriculturists have developed and incorporated a number of technological advancements.
To improve the genetic quality of the crops, nanotechnology is used in agricultural sector. The nanoparticles make sure that pests and diseases are evacuated in time and thus the crops grow healthier. Another technological use is the GPS technology which helps the farmers to perform field mapping, tractor guidance, farm planning and soil sampling etc. One more recent advancement is the development of water and soil sensors which help the farmers to measure the nitrogen and moisture content of the field, henceforth, providing the farmers with ability to make a proper watering and fertilizing schedule.
Agricultural robots are now developed which have cut the labor into half from preparing land to cutting crops. Mini-chromosomal technologies have revolutionized the development of desired quality crop products. Information technology is incorporated in agricultural sector which has helped to develop such applications which are able to give details of market prices, market demands, yield and supply gap to the farmers.
The advancement is evident and still growing by leaps and bounds every going hour. It is for the consumers to choose that which technology they will prefer to adapt.
Besides these advancements we are facing huge disadvantages of these technology and advancements. In recent years the increasing trend of pesticides herbicide and synthetic fertilizer for increasing the production of crops and reducing the crop lose due to pest attack and disease spread.Due to over use of these chemicals human health is affected.
In developed countries the excess use of herbicides and pesticides and and other chemicals have banned now. But developing countries are still using these chemicals excessively.
Developing countries should take steps to adopt organic farming practices for healthy food and feed production strat now and save life of coming generation's.
In regards of organic farming research institute and educational institutes should play a role to save life's and increase production to meet the need of food feed and fiber for increasing population of the world.
Few research institute in the world started research on organic farming to increase the production of food feed and fiber through natural ways and remaining should must take action on organic farming and government of every country should promote organic farming on national level and further the provisional government should also take care of those farm.
Mehak Munir & Dr. Muhammmad Yaseen
Department of Agriculture Extension,
College of Agriculture, UOS, Sargodha
College of Agriculture, UOS
PRODUCTION STATUS OF MAJOR VEGETABLES IN PAKISTAN, THEIR PROBLEMS AND SUGGESTION
The total cropped area of the country reported for the year 2019, was 22.1 million ha. Out of this 65.8% was under food crops, 24.2% under cash crops, 6.7% under pulses and 3.3% under edible oilseeds. Vegetables constitute an integral component of the cropping pattern but the increasing pressure on food and cash crops has limited the area under vegetables to about 0.62 million ha, which is 3.1% of the total cropped area. Vegetables fit well in most farming systems due to shorter maturity period.
Vegetable crops are very important due to their higher yield potential, higher return and high nutritional value and suitability for small land holding farmers. Vegetables provide proteins, minerals and vitamins required for human nutrition. In Pakistan, the daily per capita intake is low, being about 100 grams compared to the recommended consumption of about 285 grams. In view of population increase, land degradation and water scarcity, there is a need to substantially increase vegetable production in the years to come and to attain self-sufficiency as well as to increase the exportable surplus. However, in the past, development efforts in agriculture sector were primarily focused on production and development of cereal crops; in spite of the fact the vegetables provide maximum output per unit area.
Vegetables grown in Pakistan
More than 35 kinds of vegetables are grown in numerous eco-systems in Pakistan from the dry zone to the wet zone, low elevation to high elevation, rain fed to irrigated and low input to very high input systems such as plastic houses. During summer and spring season, tomato, chilies, brinjal, potato, cucumber, gourds and okra are abundantly available. During rainy season, gourds, cucumber, beans, okra and brinjal are common. The winter season is the most important for growing a wide variety of vegetables including, cauliflower, cabbage, lettuce, spinach, onion, potato, carrot, radish, turnip, coriander, fenugreek and peas. Vegetables produced in different zones by using different production technologies during different seasons are traded across regional markets of Pakistan in order to meet consumer demand across the country. Varied agro-climatic conditions prevailing in different provinces of the country also contribute to year round production of different kinds of vegetables. Thus many vegetables can be grown and seen in the market during any season.
Area and Production
Total area and production of vegetables including potatoes and condiments, averaged about 588 thousand ha and 7612.4 thousand tones, respectively during the past ten years (2002 -12) Table 1. Though subjected to annual variations, overall area and production of vegetables in Pakistan have shown an increasing trend during the past 10 years. Since 2002-03 to 2011-12, the area under vegetable crops including potato and condiments has increased from 520.9 to 611.7 thousand hectares and production has increased from 6454.2 to 8478.8 thousand tonnes.
Area, production and share of important vegetables in Pakistan
The major vegetable grown in the country are potato, onion, chilies, tomato, turnip, okra carrot, cauliflower peas and tinda gourd covering 78% of the total area under vegetables accounting for 81% of the total production (Table 3). The major share in area and production is of potato which is 30.2% and 40%, respectively followed by onion with respective share of 21.2% and 21.4%.
Produce is not in line with the international standards and internationally demanded varieties. Research organizations should develop varieties that best meet the needs of the global market. Development of varieties rich in nutrients and having resistance against diseases, insect pests, drought, heat and frost will need more emphasis and concerted efforts. Seed of promising varieties of vegetables should be produced to ensure regular supply of true-to-type good quality seed. There is a need for improving and strengthening the seed-producing agencies for better quality seed production and supply. Hybrid seed production at lower cost should be encouraged. Emerging areas of science such as biotechnology, bioengineering and tissue culture should be given due importance in research and multiplication of planting materials. Policy of vegetable research has to be focused on solving chronic production problems through development of disease and pest resistant varieties to fit into various cropping systems in different agro ecological situations. Future strategies in vegetable production must consider increasing demand for export. This has to be supplemented through crop improvement and better management practices that can increase the production to meet domestic requirements and the potential increases in exports.